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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum pseudocapsicum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia to Brazil and S. South America.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 200 - 2800 m.; Andes, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Subarbusto, arbusto, arbolito
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated in Uppsala, “habitat in Madeira”, Herb. Linn. 284.4 (LINN!, lecto.), designated by SchönbeckTemesy in Fl. Iranica 100: 6 (1972) though usually attributed to D’Arcy in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 714 (1973) [See Knapp & Jarvis in J.L.S. 104: 351 (1990) for full discussion of typification]
    General
    Herb or erect shrub to 2 m high, stems green when young becoming woody and brown with smoothish striated bark and numerous leaf scars; all parts glabrous or sparsely pilose with scattered dendritic hairs mixed with simple few-celled multicellular hairs, small stalked glands usually present on stems and leaves
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or opposite with one of the pair often much smaller, usually membranaceous, dark green with a prominent lower midrib, linear- or narrowly elliptic to linear-lanceolate, 3.5–10.5 × 0.6–2 cm, bases cuneate and sometimes decurrent, margins entire to sinuate and often inrolled especially towards the petiole, apices acute to acuminate; surfaces glabrous to sparsely pubescent often with scattered stalked glands on both surfaces; petioles 0.6–1.8 cm long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences leaf-opposed to extra-axillary, simple to extended cymes, (1–)2–3flowered; peduncles erect, vestigial or to 8 mm; pedicels erect or sometimes recurved, 5–7 mm long in flower, thickened to woody and 8–13 mm long in fruit especially beneath calyx; axes glabrous to sparsely pubescent
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, (3.5–)4–7 mm long, glabrous to sparsely pubescent externally; lobes obovate, linear-lanceolate to narrowly triangular, 2.3–5 × 1–1.8 mm, acute; persistent and enlarging to 4–7 × 1.1–3.2 mm in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla white, with median vein to lobes, stellate, 1.2–1.6 cm diameter, tube 1–1.5 mm long; lobes spreading or reflexed after anthesis, broadly ovate to lanceolate, 5–6 × 2–3.5 mm
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; filaments 0.5–0.7 mm long, glabrous; anthers yellow to orange-yellow, 2.4–3.4 × 0.8–1 mm, connivent
    Ovary
    Ovary ± 1.6 × 1.5 mm, glabrous; style straight, green, 3.5–5.5 × 0.3 mm, glabrous, exserted to 2 mm; stigma capitate, ± 0.3 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Fruit always borne erect, smooth, red to orange globose and often glossy berries 8–18 mm diameter, surrounded by accrescent narrowly triangular calyx lobes which become basally adherent at maturity, probably deciduous from calyces
    Seeds
    Seeds many (67–74) per berry, yellow to yellowish-brown, obovoid, discoidal to reniform, 3–3.8 × 2.5–3.2 mm, flattened with raised margin, foveolate; sclerotic granules absent
    Ecology
    Usually found as an escape from cultivation; recorded in Thuja-Araucaria plantation; 1600–2150 m
    Note
    Though Linnaeus gave the type locality as Madera (Madeira), it is unlikely that the plant was native there. Knapp & Jarvis (1990) considered that historical evidence pointed to Linnaeus deriving his specific epithet from a much earlier work based on a Spanish name which indicated that it is native to the New World, probably to the drier parts of Mexico, SE Brazil and northern S America, from where it may have been introduced to Europe by Spanish and Portugese traders. It is an attractive ornamental which has been introduced throughout the world and is now widely cultivated in warm regions, where it has often become a troublesome weed. The species is commonly known as the Jerusalem-, Winter- or Madeira- Cherry, and is often a popular decorative shrub. Verdcourt & Trump (1969) reported that the fruits contain solanine, solanidine and solanocapsine and that whilst it is often eaten, it should be classed as mildly poisonous since it causes a slowing action on the heart. Many subspecies and varieties of S. pseudocapsicum have been formally described, mostly from countries in S. America. They have not been included here as none of these names have been encountered in African literature.   S. capsicastrum is another Solanum described from temperate eastern S America widely cultivated as an ornamental, which also occurs as a casual. It is almost certainly a synonym of the S. diflorum Vell described earlier from Brazil. Hawkes & Edmonds (1972) considered that S. capsicastrum was a separate species distiguishable from S. pseudocapsicum by its dense dendritic pubescence, its shorter stems, and larger berries. However, many other authors (e.g. Gonçalves, 2005) have since synonymised these two species. Bitter differentiated his var. diflorum from S. pseudocapsicum on the basis of the dense indumentum of branched hairs found on all vegetative parts. This character has often been used to differentiate the latter species from S. capsicastrum. Most African specimens of S. pseudocapsicum seem to be glabrous or only very sparsely pubescent becoming glabrescent. It is possible those specimens found in the Americas more typically exhibit the dense pubescence described for this variety and for S. capsicastrum.
    Distribution
    Range: Also in Madeira, the Oceanic Islands, Panama, Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, Australia and Europe Range: Cultivated throughout Africa including South Africa and Madagascar, possibly naturalised in Eritrea and Ethiopia Flora districts: K3 K4 T6

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Chile Central, Chile North, Juan Fernández Is., Paraguay, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Assam, Azores, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Connecticut, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Greece, Hawaii, India, Iran, Jawa, Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Masachusettes, Mississippi, Myanmar, Nepal, New South Wales, New York, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Queensland, Réunion, South Australia, South Carolina, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum pseudocapsicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2013 Eiten, G. [5790], Brazil K000983651
    Nov 1, 2013 Groppo, M. Jr [864], Brazil K000983650
    Jan 1, 1998 Hatschbach, G. [68738], Brazil K000982192
    Jan 1, 1998 Irwin, H.S. [30475], Brazil K000983655
    Jan 1, 1998 Lindberg, G.A. [175], Brazil K000983652
    Jan 1, 1998 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001058512
    Jan 1, 1998 Glaziou [16297] K000983654
    Jan 1, 1997 Palmer, E. [410], Mexico K000063820
    Jan 1, 1993 Hinton, G.B. [669], Mexico K000063821
    Jan 1, 1993 Hinton, G.B. [4020], Mexico K000063822
    Jan 1, 1993 Ratter, J.A. [3914], Brazil K000982197
    Jan 1, 1991 Bang, M. [972], Bolivia K000585604 syntype
    Jan 1, 1991 Bang, M. [1096], Bolivia K000585605 syntype
    Jan 1, 1991 Eiten, G. [7856], Brazil K000982200
    Jan 1, 1991 Dusén, P. [6855], Brazil K001058513
    Jan 1, 1991 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000982193
    Jan 1, 1991 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000982195
    Jan 1, 1991 s.coll. [12] K000982216
    Jan 1, 1991 Glaziou [11370], Brazil K000982196
    Jan 1, 1990 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212409
    Jan 1, 1990 Swann, C. [1838], Brazil K001058514
    Jan 1, 1990 Macnight [352] K001058516
    Jan 1, 1986 Hinton, G.B. [1666], Mexico K000063823
    Jan 1, 1976 Croat, T.B. [28473], Madagascar K000212410
    Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [26048], Iraq K000788432
    Jul 4, 1905 Okebiro, D. [337], Kenya K000788397
    Jul 4, 1905 Xiao-Ping, D. [49], China K000788398
    Rodway, F.A. [617], Australia 9897.000
    Rodway, F.A. [617], Australia K001154148
    Hubbard, C.E. [4299], Australia K001154141
    Hubbard, C.E. [4299], Australia K001154142
    Hinton, G.B. [1666], Mexico K001160674
    Clemens, M.S. [s.n.], Australia K001154143
    Kajewski, S.F. [1266], Australia K001154144
    Hutchinson, J. [1260], South Africa K001159379
    Schultes, R.E. [7504], Colombia K001165422
    Schultes, R.E. [7504], Colombia K001165423
    Degener, O. [7373], USA K001155603
    Degener, O. [7375], USA K001155605
    Pedersen, T.M. [6207], Argentina K001167702
    Pedersen, T.M. [5105], Paraguay K001161917
    Strey, R.G. [7686], South Africa K001159375
    Strey, R.G. [10639], South Africa K001159382
    Guillarmod, J. [48], South Africa K001159386
    Arnold, M.H.M. [s.n.], South Africa K001159383
    Lindsay, N. [1022], Iran K001169837
    Rojas [8409], Paraguay K001161914
    Wood [7641], Bolivia K001165429
    Wood [13082], Bolivia K001165430
    Wood [7594], Bolivia K001165431
    Matthew, K.M. [48892], India K001153186
    Beck, S.G. [9809], Bolivia K001165436
    Nicholas, A. [1708], South Africa K001159377
    Fendler, A. [990], Venezuela K001165427
    Lourteig, A. [1881], Paraguay K001161911
    Asplund, E. [6104], Ecuador K001165428
    Nee, M. [15006-c], USA K001169838
    Nee, M. [33951], Bolivia K001165434
    Nee, M. [33775], Bolivia K001165435
    Bourgeau, E. [1448], Spain K001152307
    Bourgeau, E. [283], Spain K001152308
    Eyerdam, W.J. [23366], Argentina K001167689
    Smith, L.B. [10,289], Brazil K000982201
    Leonard, A. [1893] K001169828
    Blake, S.T. [5022], Australia K001154145
    King [101] K001167682
    Cavalerie, J. [7527], China K001152493
    Faber, E. [s.n.], China K001152496
    Baldacci, A. [219], Albania K001151584
    Constable, E.F. [41735], Australia K001154149
    Alcock, C.R. [2681], Australia K001154146
    MacOwan, P. [108] K001159381
    Palmer, E.J. [11981], USA K001159734
    Sauliere, A. [630a], India K001153183
    Rogers, F.A. [18233], South Africa K001159373
    Cristóbal, C.L. [2089], Argentina K001167691
    Liebenberg, L.C.C. [8618], South Africa K001159369
    Mgaza, C.D. [24], Tanzania K001169836
    St John, H. [11270], USA K001155604
    Young, R.G.N. [s.n.], South Africa K001159374
    Fox [s.n.], Argentina K001167684
    Hu, S.Y. [12928], Hong Kong K001152497
    Arnold, T.H. [215], South Africa K001159371
    Godman, F.D. [s.n.], Portugal K001152324
    Deane, H. [s.n.], India K001153185
    Venturi, S. [40378], Argentina K001167693
    Venturi, S. [7894], Argentina K001167699
    Bertoni [878], Argentina K001167692
    Balsinhas, A.A. [3386], South Africa K001159370
    Sellow [12], Brazil K000982194
    Chapman, A.W. [6] K001159733
    Keller, H.A. [6180], Argentina K001167687
    McVaugh, R. [6852], USA K001159735
    Sparre, B. [7], Argentina K001167690
    Botteri, M. [844], Mexico K000063819
    Plowman, T.C. [2668], Chile K001167681
    Plowman, T.C. [2733], Argentina K001167695
    Jorgensen, P. [3676], Paraguay K001161907
    Geldenhuys, C.J. [362], South Africa K001159384
    Hunziker, A.T. [6893], Argentina K001167696
    Tressens, S.G. [4031], Argentina K001167694
    Tressens, S.G. [2704], Argentina K001167700
    Tressens, S.G. [2762], Argentina K001167701
    Castro, R. [52341], Argentina K001167703
    Ferrucci, S. [108], Argentina K001167697
    Clarke, C.B. [133], Portugal K001152323
    Balansa, B. [2099], Paraguay K001161909
    Balansa, B. [2100], Paraguay K001161915
    Mandon, G. [178], Portugal K001152319
    Steinbach, J. [14786], Bolivia K001165432
    Steinbach, J. [8691], Bolivia K001165433
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [8869], Brazil K000983653
    Pallas [s.n.], Portugal K001152322
    Nurrish, L. [1666], South Africa K001159387
    s.coll [79] K001152309
    s.coll [s.n.], Portugal K001152317
    s.coll [s.n.] K001152321
    s.coll [s.n.] K001152325
    s.coll [s.n.], China K001152494
    s.coll [717], Argentina K001167680
    s.coll [143], Uruguay K001167705
    s.coll [CPC5], Russian Federation K001169825
    s.coll [56/H/1870], United Kingdom K001169827
    s.coll [19] K001151585
    s.coll [s.n.] K001151586
    s.coll [s.n.] K001151587
    s.coll [s.n.] K001151588
    s.coll [s.n.], South Africa K001159380
    s.coll [s.n.], South Africa K001159385
    s.coll [1035], Paraguay K001161906
    s.coll [280], Paraguay K001161918
    Vine, R.S. [s.n.], Macedonia K001151580
    Vine, R.S. [s.n.], Macedonia K001151581
    Vine, R.S. [s.n.], Macedonia K001151582
    Vine, R.S. [s.n.], Macedonia K001151583
    Hieronymus, G.H.E.W. [627], Argentina K001167688
    Maesen, L.J.G. van der [2924], India K001153184
    Hassler, É. [7604], Paraguay K001161908
    Hassler, É. [2595], Paraguay K001161910
    Hassler, É. [1402], Paraguay K001161913
    Hassler, É. [12381], Paraguay K001161916
    Hassler, É. [1653], Paraguay K001161919
    Lambdon, P.W. [SH020], St. Helena K000369827
    Krishnappa, D.G. [159], India K001153182
    Osten, C. [16290], Uruguay K001167704
    Xiao-Ping, D. [49], China K001152489
    Howick [3], South Africa K001159376
    s.coll. [s.n.] K001058515
    Tweedie [s.n.] K001169826
    Glaziou [9551], Brazil K000983656
    McDonald [48544], Indonesia K001153537
    Barchet [504], China K001152495
    Herb Hookerianum [1400] K001167683
    Herb Morrison, A. [1448], Australia K001154151
    Herb Morrison, A. [1449], Australia K001154152
    Herb Morrison, A. [1447], Australia K001154153
    Haught, O.L. [4193], Colombia K001165424
    Haught, O.L. [2329], Colombia K001165426
    Carew Hunt, T. [144], Portugal K001152326
    Carew Hunt, T. [40], Portugal K001152327
    Herb. Moniz [s.n.], Portugal K001152318
    Herb. Forster [s.n.], Portugal K001152320
    Léveillé [936], China K001152490
    Maire, E.-.E. [61], China K001152491
    Maire, E.-.E. [1995], China K001152492
    Wheeler, F. [s.n.], Australia K001154147
    O'Hara, J. [3492], Australia K001154150
    Darwin, S.P. [1210], USA K001155602
    Mazzucconi, V.J. [282], Argentina K001167698
    Herb. Lehmann [K230], Colombia K001165425
    Breyes-Brandwijk, M. [s.n.], South Africa K001159372
    Wells, W.J. [3971], South Africa K001159378
    Herb. Wolley Dod, A.H. [426], South Africa K001159388
    Nunes, S. [57], Brazil K001161905
    s.coll [s.n.], Brazil Solanum capsicastrum K001168562
    Montes, J.E. [3367], Argentina Solanum diflorum K001167502
    s.coll [5641], Argentina Solanum diflorum K001167506
    Martínez Crovetto, R. [10802], Argentina Solanum diflorum K001167503
    Spegazzini, R.A. [64606], Argentina Solanum diflorum K001167507
    Ferraro, L.I. [1996], Argentina Solanum diflorum K001167504
    Gareiso, A.R. [129], Argentina Solanum diflorum K001167505
    Purdie [77], Trinidad-Tobago Solanum karstenii K000532434
    Purdie [77], Trinidad-Tobago Solanum karstenii K000532435
    Purdie [77], Trinidad-Tobago Solanum karstenii K000532436
    Lockhart [201], Trinidad-Tobago Solanum karstenii K000532433
    Pringle, C.G. [8070], Mexico Solanum jaliscanum K000063825
    Pringle, C.G. [6870], Mexico Solanum jaliscanum K000063826
    s.coll [H1402/53], United Kingdom Solanum tucumanense K001167783
    Saravia Toledo, C. [12970], Argentina Solanum tucumanense K001167782
    Temperate Dept. [H4419/66], United Kingdom Solanum tucumanense K001170921

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 184 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth.: 124 (2006).
    • F.Z. 8 (4): 70 (2005)
    • Fl. Egypt 159, Solanaceae: 43 (1998)
    • Huxley et al., New RHS Dict. Gard. 4: 319 (1992)
    • Jaeger, Syst. studies Solanum in Africa: 331 (1985, ined.)
    • Purdie et al., Fl. Australia 29: 116 (1982)
    • Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 97 (1981)
    • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 714 (1973)
    • Fl. Europ. 3: 198 (1972)
    • Fl. Iranica 100: 6 (1972)
    • Verdcourt & Trump, Common Poisonous Pl. E. Afr. 168 (1969)
    • Bailey, Man. Cult. Plants: 868 (1966)
    • E.P.A.: 874 (1963)
    • Polhill, Solanum in E and NE Africa: 12 (ined., 1961)
    • Baileya 8: 34 (1960)
    • E.J. 54: 497 (1917)
    • Fl. Cap.: 90 (1904)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 152 (1852)
    • G. Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. Pl.: 411 (1837)
    • Dunal, Synopsis: 11 (1816)
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 184 (1753)

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0