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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum seaforthianum Andrews

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Florida to Caribbean, Mexico to Venezuela, Brazil (Fernando de Noronha).

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 1500 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Trepadora, liana
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type: t. 504 of Andr. in loc. cit. (1808), proposed by Symon in loc. cit. (1981) as iconolectotype, based on a specimen sent by Lord Seaforth from the West Indies.
    Habit
    Climbing or trailing shrub to 6 m, subglabrous or scarcely pubescent; hairs simple, few-celled, ± curved, usually ± appressed, with tiny glandular ones also Climbing or trailing shrub to 6 m, subglabrous or scarcely pubescent; hairs simple, few-celled, ± curved, usually ± appressed, with tiny glandular ones also.
    Branches
    Branches ± terete, slender, becoming somewhat woody Branches ± terete, slender, becoming somewhat woody.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary; petiole 1–4.5 cm long; lamina membranous, 2.5–14 × 1. 5–10 cm, ovate to sometimes elliptic or obovate in outline, acute to truncate or cordate and somewhat unequal-sided at the base, subglabrous or pubescent at least along the margins and veins, and also with some glandular hairs often present beneath, mostly pinnatilobed to pinnatisect distally and pinnatisect proximally, with (3)5–7(9) lobes or segments, these 0.7–8.4 × 0.2–3.2 cm, the lowest often smaller and the upper ones mostly confluent with the rhachis, ovate to lanceolate, obovate to oblanceolate, elliptic or oblong, basally cuneate, truncate or sub-cordate and ± oblique, broadly attached to shortly stalked, apically obtuse to acute and often ± long-acuminate, entire or undulate, the sinuses broadly rounded to acute Leaves solitary; petiole 1–4.5 cm long; lamina membranous, 2.5–14 × 1.5–10 cm, ovate to sometimes elliptic or obovate in outline, acute to truncate or cordate and somewhat unequal-sided at the base, subglabrous or pubescent at least along the margins and veins, and also with some glandular hairs often present beneath, mostly pinnatilobed to pinnatisect distally and pinnatisect proximally, with (3)5–7(9) lobes or segments, these 0.7–8.4 × 0.2–3.2 cm, the lowest often smaller and the upper ones mostly confluent with the rhachis, ovate to lanceolate, obovate to oblanceolate, elliptic or oblong, basally cuneate, truncate or sub-cordate and ± oblique, broadly attached to shortly stalked, apically obtuse to acute and often ± long-acuminate, entire or undulate, the sinuses broadly rounded to acute.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes soon displaced laterally, showy, paniculiform or corymbiform, 4.5–17 cm long, ± lax, usually many-flowered, drooping, with the axes glabrous apart from a few glandular hairs; peduncle (0.5)1. 5–4.5(7.5) cm long, elongated to 9 cm in fruit Cymes soon displaced laterally, showy, paniculiform or corymbiform, 4.5–17 cm long, ± lax, usually many-flowered, drooping, with the axes glabrous apart from a few glandular hairs; peduncle (0.5)1.5–4.5(7.5) cm long, elongated to 9 cm in fruit.
    Flowers
    Flowers ± pendulous. Flowers ± pendulous; pedicels 5–16(19 in fruit) mm long, slender, slightly thickened upwards, abscissing near the base.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 5–16(19 in fruit) mm long, slender, slightly thickened upwards, abscissing near the base
    Calyx
    Calyx green to purplish upwards, 0.7–1. 2 mm long, campanulate or cupular, glabrous or glandular, apically truncate or with umbonate teeth to short, deltate, obtuse lobes tipped with a few hairs, in fruit not splitting at the sinuses Calyx green to purplish upwards, 0.7–1.2 mm long, campanulate or cupular, glabrous or glandular, apically truncate or with umbonate teeth to short, deltate, obtuse lobes tipped with a few hairs, in fruit not splitting at the sinuses.
    Corolla
    Corolla blue to mauve, purple or lilacineous, elsewhere rarely white, ± deeply stelliform, 12–29 mm across; lobes 5–12 × 2–7 mm, oblong or lanceolate, acutish from a tapering apex, with eglandular hairs along the margins and on the tip Corolla blue to mauve, purple or lilacineous, elsewhere rarely white, ± deeply stelliform, 12–29 mm across; lobes 5–12 × 2–7 mm, oblong or lanceolate, acutish from a tapering apex, with eglandular hairs along the margins and on the tip.
    Ovary
    Ovary c.  1 mm in diameter, globose or globose-conical, glabrous or with a few glandular hairs.
    Style
    Style 6–11 mm long, slender, straight but curved at the apex, much exceeding the stamens
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=24
    Ecology
    Common in tropical and subtropical Africa. Evergreen and riverine forest, thickets, various types of woodland (mainly riparian and miombo), mixed woodland, grassland, hedges and gardens, rocky places; up to 1525 m.
    Distribution
    Botswana. Zimbabwe Zambia Originally from around the Caribbean from Mexico to Nicaragua and the West Indies, now widely cultivated as a garden ornamental for its showy flowers and brilliant fruits, naturalized in a number of parts of the world. Malawi Mozambique BOT SE, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E ZIM S, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ S, MOZ M
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 1.5–3.5 mm long; anthers 2–4 mm long, stout, oblong in outline, not or slightly tapering towards the apex. Stamen filaments 1. 5–3.5 mm long; anthers 2–4 mm long, stout, oblong in outline, not or slightly tapering towards the apex
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, globose or globose-conical, glabrous or with a few glandular hairs; style 6–11 mm long, slender, straight but curved at the apex, much exceeding the stamens.
    Fruits
    Fruit bright to deep shiny red, 7–11 mm in diameter, globose to ovoid, finally pulpy, poisonous. Fruit bright to deep shiny red, 7–11 mm in diameter, globose to ovoid, finally pulpy, poisonous
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, creamy to reddish-brown, 2.6–4 × 2–3.5 mm, sub-reniform or circular to obovate in outline, appearing hirsute with the remains of cell walls projecting outwards. Seeds numerous, creamy to reddish-brown, 2.6–4 × 2–3.5 mm, sub-reniform or circular to obovate in outline, appearing hirsute with the remains of cell walls projecting outwards
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated in Britain from seed sent from West Indies by Lord Seaforth; no specimens known to exist, lectotype t. 504 of Andrews (1808) designated by Symon (in Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 67 (1981))
    Habit
    Vine, creeper, or trailing to scrambling shrub reaching 7 m high, climbing by means of twining petioles;
    Stem
    Stems woody basally, often becoming brittle, light green to brown, sparsely pilose to glabrescent with short eglandular hairs mixed with short glands
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate to spirally arranged, membranaceous, light green, 4.5–13.5 × 3.3–11 cm, usually partially or completely imparipinnate with 2–4 pairs of lateral leaflets, upper pairs often confluent with rachis, lowers ones often small; leaflets lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 2–5.5 × 1–4 cm, bases cuneate to attenuate, margins entire, apices acute to obtuse, surfaces ± pilose to glabrescent, hairs as on stems when present but denser on rhachides, margins, veins and midribs, sessile or shortly petiolulate (when up to 3 mm long); petioles 1.5–4.5 cm long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal or leaf-opposed to extra-axillary when lateral, lax, pendent, many-flowered (to 50+) showy panicles or corymbs, 4.5–13.5 × 4–10 cm, often pyramidal; peduncles erect becoming pendent, 1.5–6 cm long; pedicels erect, with basal abscission layer, 7–12 mm long in flower, 12–30 mm long in fruit when swollen beneath calyx; calyx cupulate, shallow, 1–1.5 mm long, glabrous externally; lobes indistinct, shallowly deltate to broadly triangular, obtuse, 0.5–0.6 × 1.2–2 mm with indistinct apical tufts of hairs, becoming shrivelled and reflexed in fruit. Corolla mauve, purple or blue, sometimes with yellow basal star, showy, stellate, 1.4–2.8 cm diameter, tube 0.5–1 mm long, lobes broadly ovate, 5–11 × 3–5.5 mm, with shortly pilose margins and apical tufts of hairs, spreading to reflexed after anthesis exposing erect androecium
    Stamens
    Stamens usually equal; filaments free for 1.6–4 mm, glabrous; anthers yellow, blue, violet to brown, 2.5–3.5 × 1.5–2 mm, with large apical pores, connivent
    Ovary
    Ovary brown, 1.3–2 × ± 1.7 mm, glabrous; style coiled or curved above, sometimes straight, 7–9.5 × ± 0.2 mm, glabrous, exserted to 5 mm; stigma globose, inconspicuous, 0.25 × 0.25–0.4 mm. Fruit usually borne erect, red, globose, 6–10 mm diameter, smooth, surrounded basally by small adherent triangular calyx lobes, often deciduous from calyces. Seeds 21–23 per berry, pale yellow to cream, obovoid, elliptic or orbicular, 2.2–3.6 × 1.3–3 mm, usually encircled with distinct rim, densely covered with long silky hair-like strands of thickening; sclerotic granules absent.
    Ecology
    Semi-deciduous forest, groundwater forest, grassland, farmland, plantations, forest reserves and gardens; 750–1550 m
    Note
    Commonly known as St Vincent or Brazilian Lilac, Glycine, Italian Jasmine, Seaforth’s Nightshade or Potato Creeper, this species has been cultivated worldwide since its introduction from the West Indies. The berries are reportedly poisonous to poultry, pigs, cattle, sheep and children in Australia, and in Zambia. The leaves sometimes emit an offensive odour when crushed, and the species is commonly spread by birds in Africa, where it has become widely established (cf. White, F.F.N.R.: 377). The punctuation used for the citation of the syntypes of var. disjunctum by Schulz is confusing; none of the syntypes cited has been seen. Schulz (1909) thought this variety occurred in Cuba, Guatemala and Costa Rica. He described the lower leaves in S. seaforthianum sensu stricto as being tri- or bi-jugate with the upper ones being simple or subjugate. His variety disjunctum was differentiated through having both the upper and the lower leaves pinnate. Although most African specimens of this species exhibit the latter feature, leaf morphology in species belonging to the section Dulcamara is notoriously variable and insufficiently reliable to be used as a basis for formal infraspecific recognition.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U 1 (fide Bukenya & Carasco, U 1995); K4 K7 T2 T3 T6 Range: Native of the West Indies and C America Range: Now widely cultivated and a common and often naturalised escape in Senegal, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Nigeria, Congo-Kinshasa, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa Range: Egypt, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and the Comoro Islands, Australia, New Guinea

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Brazil Northeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Cyprus, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Ghana, Guyana, Hawaii, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum seaforthianum Andrews appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2012 Philcox, D. [4468], Brazil K000788120
    May 1, 2012 Matthew, K.M. [RHT48498], India K000788136
    May 1, 2012 Matthew, K.M. [RHT28530], India K000788138
    May 1, 2012 Parker, C.S. [s.n.], Guyana K000788121
    May 1, 2012 Parker, C.S. [s.n.], Guyana K000788123
    May 1, 2012 Cooray, R.G. [7020308R], Sri Lanka K000788142
    May 1, 2012 Gandhi, K.N. [HFP2060], India K000788137
    May 1, 2012 Raizada, M.B. [20269], India K000788140
    May 1, 2012 Maesen, L.J.G. van der [2794], India K000788139
    May 1, 2012 Krishnappa, D.G. [368], India K000788141
    May 1, 2012 Mansfield, A.L. [s.n.], Guyana K000788122
    Mar 1, 2011 Jayasuriya, M. [1936], Sri Lanka K000788146
    Feb 1, 2011 Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [1409], Sri Lanka K000788143
    Feb 1, 2011 Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [1426], Sri Lanka K000788144
    Feb 1, 2011 Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [1385], Sri Lanka K000788145
    Feb 1, 2011 Fosberg, F.R. [56368], Sri Lanka K000788148
    Feb 1, 2011 Fosberg, F.R. [57171], Sri Lanka K000788149
    Feb 1, 2011 Comanor, P.L. [831], Sri Lanka K000788150
    Dec 1, 2009 Valeur, E.J. [681], Dominican Republic K000196455
    Oct 1, 2009 Sintenis, P. [6292], Puerto Rico K000196449
    Oct 1, 2009 Constable, E.F. [4903], Australia K000788560
    Nov 1, 2008 Symon, D.E. [4754], Australia K000788553
    Jun 1, 2008 Broadway, W.E. [6369], Trinidad & Tobago K000196444
    Feb 1, 2008 Donnell Smith, J. [2677], Guatemala K000545375
    Feb 1, 2008 Gaumer, G.F. [841], Mexico K000545374
    Feb 1, 2008 Moloney, A. [115], Belize K000545373
    Feb 1, 2008 Calzada, J.I. [24284], Mexico K000545377
    Feb 1, 2008 Yuncker, T.G. [5685], Honduras K000545371
    Feb 1, 2008 Heyde, E.T. [DS3821], Guatemala K000545376
    Feb 1, 2008 Hassler, É. [11990], Paraguay K000788124
    Jan 1, 2007 Sandwith, N.Y. [1674], Trinidad & Tobago K000196443
    Jan 1, 2007 Baker, R.E.D. [14848], Trinidad & Tobago K000196447
    Jan 1, 2007 Simmonds, N.W. [14479], Trinidad & Tobago K000196441
    Jan 1, 2007 Simmonds, N.W. [14479], Trinidad & Tobago K000196446
    Jan 1, 2007 Fendler, A. [614], Trinidad & Tobago K000196442
    Jan 1, 2007 Ekman, E.L. [H14352], Dominican Republic K000196453
    Jan 1, 2007 Walsh, J.J. [s.n.], British Virgin Is. K000196462
    Jan 1, 2007 Rev, L.G. [s.n.], St. Vincent & the Grenadines K000196450
    Jan 1, 2007 Anderson [s.n.], Trinidad & Tobago K000196445
    Jan 1, 2007 Anonymous [s.n.], United Kingdom K000196448
    Jan 1, 2007 Hoskin, J. [s.n.], Dominica K000196457
    Jul 5, 1905 White, C.T. [12683], Australia K000788554
    Jul 5, 1905 Blake, S.T. [3115], Australia K000788557
    Jul 5, 1905 Lazarides, M. [4239], Australia K000788555
    Jul 5, 1905 Maconochie, J.R. [2729], Australia K000788558
    Jul 5, 1905 Longman, H.A. [s.n.], Australia K000788551
    Jul 5, 1905 Longman, H.A. [s.n.], Australia K000788552
    Jul 5, 1905 Johnson, R.W. [2625], Australia K000788556
    Jul 5, 1905 Orchard, A.E. [4678], Australia K000788550
    Jul 5, 1905 Snow, N. [7745], Australia K000788549
    Jul 5, 1905 Halliday, T.A. [508], Australia K000788559
    Jul 5, 1905 Clark, S.J. [1259], Australia K000788561
    Jul 5, 1905 Clark, S.J. [1259], Australia K000788562
    Jul 4, 1905 Sastre, C. [8297], Guadeloupe K000788339
    Jul 4, 1905 Anna, M. [NPGRC396], Tanzania K000788320
    Jul 3, 1905 Bally, P.R.O. [6565], Kenya K000658644
    Jul 3, 1905 Faulkner, H.G. [656], Tanzania K000658648
    Jul 3, 1905 Faulkner, H.G. [656], Tanzania K000658649
    Jul 3, 1905 Semsei, S.R. [3487], Tanzania K000658650
    Jul 3, 1905 Semsei, S.R. [3487], Tanzania K000658651
    Jul 3, 1905 Linder, D.H. [1880], Congo K000658554
    Jul 3, 1905 Malaisse, F. [8837], Congo K000658555
    Jul 3, 1905 Borhidi, A. [85359], Tanzania K000658646
    Jul 3, 1905 Borhidi, A. [85359], Tanzania K000658647
    Jul 3, 1905 Mwachala, G. [EW-1203], Kenya K000658643
    Jul 3, 1905 Laurent, M. [s.n.], Congo K000658553
    Jul 3, 1905 Dubois, J. [109], Congo K000658556
    Jul 3, 1905 Ruffo, C.K. [547], Tanzania K000658653
    Jul 3, 1905 Van Rensberg, H.J. [495], Tanzania K000658652
    Jul 3, 1905 Hira, H. [s.n.], Kenya K000658645
    Jul 3, 1905 Atherton, G. [86], Cyprus K000788315
    Jul 2, 1905 Gardner, G. [2427], Brazil K000788118
    Jul 2, 1905 Gardner, G. [2427], Brazil K000788119
    Jun 28, 1905 Harris, W. [11959], Jamaica K000196451
    Jun 28, 1905 Harris, W. [11959], Jamaica K000196452
    Jun 28, 1905 Combs, R. [35], Cuba K000196456
    Jun 8, 1905 Lehmann, F.C. [1012], Costa Rica K000545372
    May 31, 1905 Comanor, P.L. [718], Sri Lanka K000788147
    Deighton, F.C. [5515], Sierra Leone K001155782
    Deighton, F.C. [5515], Sierra Leone K001155783
    Robinson, E.A. [2906], Zambia K001158757
    Robinson, E.A. [283], Zambia K001158758
    Robinson, E.A. [283], Zambia K001158760
    Fanshawe, D.B. [4568], Zambia K001158748
    Fanshawe, D.B. [10479], Zambia K001158752
    Fanshawe, D.B. [1262], Zambia K001158753
    Fanshawe, D.B. [7624], Zambia K001158754
    Fanshawe, D.B. [7622], Zambia K001158755
    Fanshawe, D.B. [7623], Zambia K001158756
    Fanshawe, D.B. [F5394], Zambia K001158759
    Garrett, H.B.G. [1342], Thailand K001153338
    Garrett, H.B.G. [1342], Thailand K001153339
    Hinton, G.B. [12255], Mexico K000063962
    Angus, A. [1201], Zambia K001158749
    Angus, A. [3043], Zambia K001158764
    Mitchell, B.L. [25/81], Zambia K001158762
    Gledhill, D. [764], Nigeria K001155785
    Wright, J.M. [239], Malawi K001158747
    Brummitt, R.K. [9524], Malawi K001158746
    Raynal, J. [RSNH 16057], Vanuatu K001155348
    Green, P.S. [RSNH 1039], Vanuatu K001155347
    Chapman, J.D. [9481], Malawi K001158745
    Scheepers, J.C. [265], South Africa K001159489
    Chew, W.L. [RSNH 389], Vanuatu K001155346
    McKee, H.S. [5201], New Caledonia K001155396
    Cadet, T. [3690], Reunion K001158970
    Biegel, H.M. [1954], Zimbabwe K001158772
    Lehmann, F.C. [4711], Ecuador K001165676
    Richardson, I.B.K. [4001], Mauritius K001158966
    Wild, H. [3136], Zambia K001158765
    Zarucchi, J.L. [4057], Colombia K001165679
    Brenan, J.P.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001169976
    Brenan, J.P.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001169977
    Brenan, J.P.M. [7778], Zambia K001158763
    Ruffo [2164], Tanzania K001158013
    Smith, H.H. [1178], Colombia K001165680
    Nicholas, A. [2163], South Africa K001159480
    Moritz [406] K001165683
    Fendler, A. [976], Venezuela K001165681
    Steyermark, J.A. [88841], Venezuela K001165682
    Parker, R.N. [4198], Zimbabwe K001158761
    Werdermann, E. [2391], South Africa K001159486
    Strid, A. [2818], Zambia K001158750
    Kerenga, K. [LAE77239], Papua New Guinea K001153789
    Rodin, R.J. [2585], South Africa K001159484
    Winit, K. [707], Thailand K001153340
    Bourne [s.n.] K001169982
    Bourne [s.n.] K001169983
    Schlieben [8274], South Africa K001159482
    Schlieben [8274], South Africa K001159483
    Simon, B.K. [2142], Zimbabwe K001158770
    Dyer, R.A. [s.n.], South Africa K001159487
    Barthelat, F. [127], Mayotte K001158973
    Bernardi [19874], Taiwan K001169978
    Bernardi [14830], Mauritius K001158967
    Vahrmeijer, J. [369], South Africa K001159488
    Hu, S.Y. [10366], Hong Kong K001169981
    Pócs, T. [88166/K], Tanzania K001158012
    Müller, T. [5], Zimbabwe K001158775
    Ngoni, J.F. [73], Zimbabwe K001158774
    Winter, B. de [2768], South Africa K001159485
    Rensburg, H.J. van [1598], Zambia K001158767
    Buitendag, E. [814], South Africa K001159481
    Blackmore, S. [151], Malawi K001158744
    Camerik, A.M. [8], Botswana K001158778
    Chipunga, L. [136], Zimbabwe K001158773
    Takaindisa, H.M. [14], Zimbabwe K001158777
    Dinsmore, J.E. [s.n.], Syria K001152181
    MacGregor, W.D. [364], Nigeria K001155784
    Simwanda, P. [90], Zambia K001158751
    Lorence, D.H. [2297], Mauritius K001158968
    Miller, O.O. [104], Venezuela K001165687
    Valeur, E.J. [681], Dominican Republic K000196454
    Florence [11173], French Polynesia K001155565
    Tracey, J.A. [44], Colombia K001165677
    Füncke [46] K001165684
    Chanel, S. [149], Vanuatu K001155344
    Chanel, S. [165], Vanuatu K001155345
    Kerr, A.F.G. [2092], Thailand K001153341
    s.coll [342], Vanuatu K001155343
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001169979
    s.coll [5823], United Kingdom K001169980
    s.coll [236], Guatemala K001169984
    s.coll [1345], Zambia K001158766
    s.coll [4608], Zimbabwe K001158768
    s.coll [5125], Zimbabwe K001158771
    s.coll [737] K001158779
    s.coll [13047], Venezuela K001165685
    André, É.F. [96] K001165675
    Chiparawasha, O. [462], Zimbabwe K001158776
    Schlieben, H.-.J. [11316], Mayotte K001158972
    Pignal, M.M. [1074], Mayotte K001158974
    Williams, L.W. [13493], Venezuela K001165686
    Herb. Lehmann [K228] K001165678
    Onveachusim, H.D. [47234], Nigeria K001155786
    Herb Q.V.M. [8909], Zimbabwe K001158769
    Cowper, S.G. [17], Mauritius K001158969
    Friedman [1603], Madagascar K001158971
    Scott-SMith, D.P. [96], South Africa K001159478
    McLean, S. [123], South Africa K001159479
    Jervis [s.n.], Colombia K001165674
    Glaziou [19730], Brazil Solanum prunifolium K001058511
    Brenan, J.P.M. [7778], Zambia Solanum seaforthianum var. disjunctum 27156.000
    s.coll [H456/66], United Kingdom Solanum seaforthianum var. disjunctum K001169985
    s.coll [1] Solanum seaforthianum var. disjunctum K001169986
    Ridley [68], Fernando de Noronha Solanum botryophorum K000590078
    Ridley [68], Fernando de Noronha Solanum botryophorum K000590079

    Bibliography

    First published in Bot. Repos. 8: t. 504 (1808)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Liogier, A.H. (1994). Flora de la Española 6: 1-517. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Bot. Reposit. 8: t. 504 (1808)

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 56: 177 (1987). TAB. 15.
    • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 53: 490 (1986).
    • J. Adel. Bot. Gard. 4: 67, fig. 15, 148/Q, 159/Q (1981).
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2: 332 (1963).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 81: 291, 326 (1962).
    • F. White, For. Fl. Northern Rhodesia: 377 (1962).
    • Clark, Victoria Falls Handb.: 155 (1953).
    • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 391 (1909).
    • De Wildeman, Miss. Ém. Laurent 1: 440 (1907).
    • Bot. Repos. 8: t. 504 (1808).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Liogier, A.H. (1994). Flora de la Española 6: 1-517. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F.Z. 8(4): 79 (2005).
    • Fl. Egypt, Family 159: 45 (1998)
    • Bothalia 25(1): 57 (1995)
    • Fl. Madagascar, 176: 125 (1994)
    • Huxley et al., New RHS Dict. Gard. 4: 382 (1992)
    • Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 8: 79 (1985)
    • Jaeger, Syst. studies Solanum in Africa: 319 (1985, ined.)
    • Purdie et al., Fl. Australia 29: 105 (1982)
    • Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 67 (1981)
    • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 758 (1973)
    • F.F.N.R.: 377 (1962)
    • T.T.C.L.: 577 (1949)
    • Urban, Symb. Antill., 6: 167 (1909)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 67 (1852)
    • G. Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. Pl.: 407 (1837)
    • Dunal, Synopsis: 7 (1816)
    • Bot. Repos. 8: t. 504 (1808)

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0