1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Capsicum L.
      1. Capsicum frutescens L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia to Brazil. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Capsicum fruticosum L. orth. var., Herbarium Amboinense, 21 (1754); Indonesia, “Amboina”, Herb. van Royen, sheet 908 244150 (L, lecto., image L0053043!), designated by Heiser & Pickersgill in Taxon 18: 280 (1969) [See also Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 382 (2007)]
    Habit
    Shrub to 2.5 m.
    Stem
    Stems erect, spreading, usually zig-zagging, much branched, angular, sparse to moderately pilose when young, with simple hairs mixed with stalked glands, glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves membranaceous, dark green, lanceolate, occasionally ovate to ovate-lanceolate, (1.3–)5–12 × (1.5–)2–5.3 cm, bases cuneate and decurrent, margins entire, apices acuminate, surfaces to sparsely pilose, denser on margins, veins and midribs, with densely pilose domatia on lower surfaces, hairs as stems; petioles (0.5–)1–2.2(–4) cm, pilose
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences usually fasciculate with 2–4 flowers in each branch or leaf axil, flowers rarely solitary; pedicels erect and slender, thickening apically in flower but prominently drooping beneath flower, 7–18 mm long, completely erect in fruit when 11–28 mm long, usually paired and often woody, glabrescent
    Calyx
    Calyx cupulate, truncate with undulating margin, 1.2–3 × 2–3.5 mm apically, lobes virtually absent, persistent but only slightly enlarged in fruit; glabrescent
    Corolla
    Corolla white, greenish-white or pale green, rarely yellow, stellate, 5–7.5 mm long and 6–10 mm diameter with tube 1.2–2 mm long; lobes broadly ovate, 2–5 × 1.2–3.2 mm, spreading or reflexed after anthesis, shortly puberulous on margins and lobe apices
    Stamens
    Stamens equal, filaments 0.7–1.6 mm long; anthers blue, blue-green or purple, oblong, 1.5–2.5 × 0.7–1.6 mm, exserted
    Ovary
    Ovary smooth, brown, ovoid, 1–2.2 × 0.8–1.5 mm, glabrous; disc to 1.3 mm diameter and 0.3 mm broad or absent; style 3.2–4.5 mm long, exserted 0.5–1.5 m; stigma 0.2–0.3 mm diameter. Fruit smooth, red, occasionally orange, ovoid to narrowly conical elongated berries, 8–20 × (3–)5–6(–9) mm, often apically acute, usually borne erect, often deciduous (or eaten by birds) leaving empty cupulate calyces
    Seeds
    Seeds yellow to orange-yellow, ovoid, discoidal or reniform to suborbicular, 3–3.5 × 2–3 mm, with thickened margin, foveolate/reticulate
    Figures
    Fig 12/1–6, p 60
    Ecology
    In secondary vegetation such as abandoned cultivation, forest edges, riverine thickets, road-sides, often in deep shade; 150–1250 m
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    This is by far the most commonly collected Capsicum species in Africa. It is now found wild or as a weed from southern US through Mexico to N & E South America, the Antilles and Argentina. DeWitt & Bosland (1996) suggested that it was first domesticated in Panama from where it spread to Mexico and the Caribbean. The domesticated variety of this species is usually known as var. pendulum, while the wild forms are known as var. baccatum and var. tomentosum and are commonly referred to as bird peppers. Many authors report the difficulty of differentiating herbarium specimens of this species from C. annuum. Bailey (in Man. Cult. Plants: 873 (1966)) considered both C. annuum and C. baccatum to be synonymous with C. frutescens, within which he differentiated several varieties often on their fruit size and shape. However, though closely related these are now considered to be distinct species which are distinguishable morphologically, and which also display low inter-fertility.  Roxburgh’s C. minimum is often cited as a synonym of C. frutescens (Roxb., Hort. Beng: 17 (1814) & Fl. Ind. 2: 261 (1824)). However, the 1824 description mentions paired pedicels and subulate calyx teeth – characters typical of C. baccatum and C. minimum is more likely to be synonymous with that species. As well as the fruits being widely used as a condiment, the leaves are also eaten as a vegetable. In K 7 these plants are eaten by elephants and the fruits by birds. Although D’Arcy & Eshbaugh (Baileya: 99 (1974)) synonymised C. conoides Mill. (Gard. Dict., No. 8 (1768)) with C. annuum, Heiser & Pickersgill (Baileya: 155 (1975)) considered that Miller’s species was either a large-fruited form of C. frutescens or a spontaneous variety of C. annuum; however they concluded that the absence of a type specimen of C. conoides precluded its taxonomic placement. Cufodontis (1963) published his variety C. annuum L. var. oblongo-conicum without any description, basing it on Dunal’s variety C. conoides var. oblongo-conicum. Dunal’s variety was based on Fingerhuth’s (1832) C. conoides rather than Miller’s species but Heiser & Pickersgill (1975) suggested that it is probably a synonym of C. frutescens. Most of these treatments describe the fruits as being oblongo-conical and borne erect, which are suggestive of conspecificity with C. frutescens.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U4 K7 T3 T6 Z Range: Cultivated and often naturalised in much of tropical Africa Range: Also northern Africa and SW Europe, Indian Ocean islands, India, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Australia
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 140 - 1700 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba, subarbusto, arbusto
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Habit
    Erect or spreading, ± bushy, short-lived perennial, up to 2 m tall Erect or spreading, ± bushy, short-lived perennial, up to 2 m tall.
    Branches
    Branches often quite woody, terete or slightly angular, ± striate or somewhat channelled, glossy, pubescent when young to ± glabrous Branches often quite woody, terete or slightly angular, ± striate or somewhat channelled, glossy, pubescent when young to ± glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually solitary, rarely 2 appearing together; petiole 0.3–3 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 1. 5–15 × 0.7–6 cm, lanceolate to broadly ovate or elliptic, base rounded to attenuate, and often unequal-sided, apex obtusely acuminate to obtuse, ± entire, ciliate, with scattered hairs, sometimes only along the nerves above, paler, duller, with a few hairs in the axils of the nerves beneath Leaves usually solitary, rarely 2 appearing together; petiole 0.3–3 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 1.5>i>–15 × 0.7>i>–6 cm, lanceolate to broadly ovate or elliptic, base rounded to attenuate, and often unequal-sided, apex obtusely acuminate to obtuse, ± entire, ciliate, with scattered hairs, sometimes only along the nerves above, paler, duller, with a few hairs in the axils of the nerves beneath.
    Flowers
    Flowers 2–3(4)-whorled, rarely solitary. Flowers 2>i>–3(4)-whorled, rarely solitary; pedicels 10>i>–20 mm long, ± terete, striate, slender, thickened upwards, glabrous, ± erect or curved distally, in fruit elongated to 30 mm and slender.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 10–20 mm long, ± terete, striate, slender, thickened upwards, glabrous, ± erect or curved distally, in fruit elongated to 30 mm and slender
    Calyx
    Calyx ± rugose, 1. 5–2.5 mm long, cupular or sub-tubular, 5- or 10-ribbed, truncate or with short, obtuse teeth or deltate umbos, glabrous or slightly pubescent; in fruit enlarged and surrounding the base of it Calyx ± rugose, 1.5>i>–2.5 mm long, cupular or sub-tubular, 5- or 10-ribbed, truncate or with short, obtuse teeth or deltate umbos, glabrous or slightly pubescent; in fruit enlarged and surrounding the base of it.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or yellowish to greenish, rarely purplish, often with yellow markings in the throat, rotate-campanulate; limb 6–10 mm across; lobes 1. 5–4 mm long, ovate-triangular, acute, ± ciliolate, spreading or reflexed Corolla white or yellowish to greenish, rarely purplish, often with yellow markings in the throat, rotate-campanulate; limb 6>i>–10 mm across; lobes 1.5>i>–4 mm long, ovate-triangular, acute, ± ciliolate, spreading or reflexed.
    Filaments
    Filaments 1–2 mm long; anthers blue to purple, rarely yellow, 1. 5–2.2 mm long, oblong or oblong-ovate in outline Filaments 1–2 mm long; anthers blue to purple, rarely yellow, 1.5–2.2 mm long, oblong or oblong-ovate in outline.
    Ovary
    Ovary 1–1. 8 mm long, ± ovoid or ellipsoid, rounded or tapering, glabrous, 2-locular.
    Style
    Style 3.4–5 mm long, straight, not or slightly thickened distally into a small stigma
    Fruits
    Fruit erect from the nodes, green, becoming orangish or red when mature, glossy, 0.9–2 × 0.4–0.6 cm, ovoid-oblong or irregularly fusiform, obtusely pointed, smooth, glabrous, very pungent or acrid, edible Fruit erect from the nodes, green, becoming orangish or red when mature, glossy, 0.9>i>–2 × 0.4>i>–0.6 cm, ovoid-oblong or irregularly fusiform, obtusely pointed, smooth, glabrous, very pungent or acrid, edible.
    Seeds
    Seeds brownish, 3.2–3.7 × 2.5–3 mm, obovate to sub-circular in outline Seeds brownish, 3.2>i>–3.7 × 2.5>i>–3 mm, obovate to sub-circular in outline.
    Ecology
    In cultivation and in disturbed ground at roadsides, forest margins, mixed woodland, lake shores and riversides, anthills, waste places; up to 1130 m.
    Note
    Common name: “African Chilli” or “African Pepper”.
    Distribution
    ZAM N, ZAM C, ZAM E, ZIM N, ZIM E, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ S, MOZ GI, MOZ M A polymorphic species indigenous to tropical America (probably from South America); now introduced and widely dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics. Cultivated as a garden and horticultural crop for the fruits, but also occurring as an escape an Mozambique Zimbabwe Malawi Zambia
    Pistil
    Ovary 1–1.8 mm long, ± ovoid or ellipsoid, rounded or tapering, glabrous, 2-locular; style 3.4–5 mm long, straight, not or slightly thickened distally into a small stigma.
    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Undershrub 2-3 ft. high, much-branched, angular
    Stem
    Nearly glabrous stems
    Flowers
    Flowers white or pale yellow.
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Distribution
    Cultivated in Colombia.
    Habit
    Herb or shrub.
    Ecology
    Alt. 140 - 1700 m.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    [UPB]
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil West-Central

    Introduced into:

    Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Cambodia, Canary Is., Chad, Christmas I., Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Fiji, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Madeira, Malawi, Marquesas, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niue, Pakistan, Panamá, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    Spanish
    Ají, ají-pique, ají huevo de araguana, piman, ají caribe.

    Capsicum frutescens L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 14, 2007 Ellen, R. [1064], Maluku K000224431
    Jun 14, 2007 Ellen, R. [1237], Maluku K000224426
    Jan 1, 2005 Vogel [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134487
    Jan 1, 2005 Kotschy [292], Sudan K000195146
    Jan 1, 2005 Kotschy [292], Sudan K000195147
    Jan 1, 2005 Higgins, J. [5], Dominica K000809083
    Jan 1, 2005 Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [1809], Guyana K000809087
    Jan 1, 2005 Hooker, J.D.(?) [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134495
    Jan 1, 2005 McIlhenny, P. [s.n.], USA K000809081
    Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000201916
    Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1548], Cameroon K000109662
    Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [69], Cameroon K000109661
    Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [57], Cameroon K000109663
    Jan 1, 1992 Thomas, W.W. [9080], Brazil K000809088
    Jan 1, 1992 Beck, H.T. [87], Brazil K001073007
    Jan 1, 1990 Balée, W.L. [910], Brazil K001073005
    Jan 1, 1989 Nee, M. [34412], Brazil K000809089
    Jan 1, 1982 Harley, R.M. [22736], Brazil K000809090
    36743.000
    Chancellor, R.J. [279], Uganda 2534.000
    Hinton, G.B. [4336], Mexico K000063184
    Hinton, G.B. [8119], Mexico K000063185
    Milliken, W. [1755], Brazil K001073006
    Eiten, G. [10140], Brazil K001073008
    Palmer, E. [394], Mexico K000063182
    Burchell, W.J. [3459], Brazil K001073009
    Rich, H.H. [883], India K000592615
    Bourgeau, M. [2076], Mexico K000063179
    Gaumer, G.F. [70], Mexico K000063180
    Gaumer, G.F., Mexico K000063181
    Gaumer, G.F. [1019], Mexico K000063177
    Vázquez T., M. [673], Mexico K000063186
    s.coll. [39], Bangladesh K000592611
    [Pavish] [s.n.], India K000592622
    Belcher, R.O [52], India K000592616
    Saint-Hilaire, A.F.C.P. [s.n.], Brazil K001073010
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2642] K001116726
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2642] K001116727
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2642] K001116728
    González, V. [975], Mexico Capsicum frutescens var. lanicaule K000063183

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 189 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Khan, M.S. & Mia, C. (2002). Flora of Bangladesh 53: 1-48. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • H?, P.-H. (1993). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam 2(2): 611-1191. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Renvoize, S.A. (1980). The Flora of Aldabra and neighbouring islands: 1-358. Crown, London.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.

    Not accepted by

    • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. [Cited as Capsicum annuum.]
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Capsicum annuum.]

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 467.
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 251
    • Sp. Pl. 189 (1753)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Cabo Verde, fam. 71: 31 (2002). Described from India.
    • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 56: 176 (1987).
    • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 53: 123 (1986).
    • Bothalia 14: 845 (1983).
    • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 594 (1974).
    • Taxon 18: 278, 283, fig. 1 (1969).
    • Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dictoyl. 2: 526, fig. 84/B (1969).
    • J. Williamson, Useful Pl. Nyasaland, ed. 2: 30 (1955).
    • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 573 (1949).
    • Robyns, Fl. Sperm. Parc Nat. Alb. 2: 205 (1947).
    • R.E. Fries, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Rhod.-Kongo-Exped.: 287 (1916).
    • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 396 (1909).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 251 (1906).
    • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1898: 77 (1898).
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 413 (1852).
    • Sp. Pl.: 189 (1753) pro parte excl. cit. Hort. Cliff. et Hort. Malab.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. 5 : 148 (2006)
    • F.Z. 8(4): 60 (2005);
    • Fl. Cabo Verde 71: 31 (2002)
    • Fl. Egypt 6: 75 (1998);
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    • E.P.A. 2: 860 (1963);
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2:328 (1963);
    • T.T.C.L.: 573 (1949);
    • U.O.P.Z.: 170 (1949);
    • F.P.N.A. 2: 205 (1947);
    • Durand & Durand, Syll. Fl. Cong.; 396 (1909);
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 251 (1906);
    • 9th Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard.: 65 (1898);
    • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 3: 751 (1898)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 413 (1852)
    • Fingerhuth, Monogr. gen. capsici: 17 (1832), as frutescens Willd.
    • Mill., Gard. Dict. Ed. 8, No. 9 (1768)
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 189 (1753)

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/