1. Family: Apocynaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Allamanda L.
      1. Allamanda cathartica L.

        There are 15 species of Allamanda from South and Central America, named by Linnaeus in honour of the Swiss doctor and botanist, Dr Frédéric-Louis Allamand, who visited Guyana in the early 18th century. Allamandas have become popular in gardens throughout the tropics, where some species have become naturalised and even invasive. In temperate countries they are grown as greenhouse plants for their freely produced, brightly coloured flowers.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    The golden trumpet vine has clusters of particularly striking golden-yellow flowers, which contrast with the shiny dark green leaves to make a lush plant for the conservatory.

    There are 15 species of Allamanda from South and Central America, named by Linnaeus in honour of the Swiss doctor and botanist, Dr Frédéric-Louis Allamand, who visited Guyana in the early 18th century. Allamandas have become popular in gardens throughout the tropics, where some species have become naturalised and even invasive. In temperate countries they are grown as greenhouse plants for their freely produced, brightly coloured flowers.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Allamanda cathartica is a native of tropical South America, from Peru and Colombia eastwards to French Guiana and Brazil. It has also been recorded in Central America as far north as Honduras. It is widely cultivated elsewhere in the tropics.

    Description

    This vigorous climbing plant has leathery evergreen leaves arranged in whorls of 4 at intervals along the stem and bright yellow flowers. The stems twine to 6 m or considerably more and contain milky sap.

    The lance-shaped leaves are 6 cm long and 3 cm wide. Golden-yellow funnel-shaped flowers up to around 9 cm long and 6 cm in diameter are held in groups of 12 on short branches at the ends of shoots or in the leaf axils. The prickly seed pods contain winged seeds.

    The form named ‘Hendersonii’ has larger flowers and is most commonly grown in Europe.

    Curtis's Botanical Magazine

    Three species of Allamandahave been illustrated in Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, under a variety of names. Allamanda catharticaappeared first in a hand-coloured engraving (artist unknown) in 1796 (see image, right). It was also illustrated in 1848 by W.H. Fitch as A. schottii, and as A. aubletii. In 1868 it was illustrated again by W. Fitch, under the name A. nobilis.

    According to William Curtis (founder of The Botanical Magazine),  Allamanda cathartica is a ‘beautiful stove plant […] introduced to this country [UK] in 1785, by Baron Hake’. Christian Ludwig von Hake (1745-1818) was a German minister and keen amateur botanist, after whom the genus  Hakea was named by Heinrich Adolph Schrader, Director of the Old Botanical Garden of Göttingen University.

    Threats and conservation

    The species is widespread both in the wild and cultivation but has not been evaluated according to IUCN Red List criteria.

    Uses

    Golden trumpet vine is widely cultivated as an ornamental. In some areas of the tropics it has escaped from cultivation and become a weed, most notably in the rain forests of northern Queensland.

    Extracts of leaves, roots and flowers have been shown to have in vivo anti-tumour activity against leukaemia in mice, and against human carcinoma of the nasopharynx (nasal cavity and upper part of the throat) in culture. Leaf and root decoctions are used as a laxative and emetic in traditional medicine in a number of tropical countries, but large doses are toxic.

    Cultivation

    Golden trumpet vine needs plenty of direct sun to flower well and should be allowed to climb up a trellis or a similar support. Propagation is by stem-tip cuttings in spring.

    This species at Kew

    Golden trumpet vine can be found in the Palm House and in the Waterlily House.

    Pressed and dried, and alcohol-preserved specimens of Allamanda cathartica are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world, by appointment. The details of some of these, including images, can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    Kew’s Economic Botany Collection includes samples of fruits, seeds and the wood of Allamanda cathartica.

    New discoveries

    A new species of Allamandawas described from north-eastern Brazil as recently as 2009 by Alessandro Rapini and Rita Fabiana de Souza-Silva. Rapini spent a year on a Kew fellowship working on the systematics and evolutionary relationships of New World Apocynaceae, in collaboration with Kew’s resident experts. He was subsequently able to demonstrate that the more evolutionarily derived groups of the family that diversified in Central and South America were the result of just four introductions from Africa over the last 20 million years.

    Distribution
    Brazil, French Guiana, Peru
    Ecology
    Near coasts, climbing through trees or shrubs in mangrove swamps and along lowland streams.
    Conservation
    Not evaluated according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    All parts are poisonous if eaten; its sap causes skin and eye irritation.

    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae, E.A. Omino. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

    Diagnostic
    Leaves whorled, glossy; flowers golden, to 8 cm across. Allamanda have very spiny subglobose fruits.
    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental, medicinal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

    Introduced Into:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Belize, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, El Salvador, Gabon, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Jawa, Madagascar, Malaya, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Society Is., Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Golden trumpet vine

    Allamanda cathartica L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Jan 1, 1986 Hopkins, M.J.G. [552], Brazil K000965623
    Jan 1, 1984 Strudwick, J.J. [3367], Brazil K000965622
    Jan 1, 1970 Cavalcante, P.B. [2444], Brazil K000965628
    Jan 1, 1968 Irwin, H.S. [19077], Brazil K000965625
    Jan 1, 1960 Irwin, H.S. [s.n.], French Guiana K000965627
    Jan 1, 1927 Dusén, P. [11448], Brazil K000965636
    Zarucchi, J.L. [3225], Brazil K000965624
    Fróes, R.L. [1707], Brazil K000965626
    Burchell [9729], Brazil K001078020
    Krukoff, B.A. [5873], Brazil K000965629
    Philcox, D. [4451], Brazil K000965630
    Gardner [6059], Brazil K000965631
    Burchell [9361], Brazil K000965632
    Gardner [6059], Brazil K000965633
    Spruce, R. [122], Brazil K000965634
    Spruce, R. [122], Brazil K000965635
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [12945], Brazil K000965637
    Forman, L. [69] 22130.000

    First published in Mant. Pl. 2: 214 (1771)

    Accepted in:

    • [1] (2014) Phytotaxa 162: 51-56
    • [2] (2014) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78
    • [3] (2013) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741
    • [4] Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013) Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh , Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh
    • [5] (2012) Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167
    • [6] (2012) Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246
    • [7] (2012) Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192
    • [8] Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012) Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies) , ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
    • [9] (2011) Flora of peninsular Malaysia , II, 2: 1-235. Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia
    • [10] Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011) Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín
    • [12] (2009) Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 66: 217-262
    • [13] (2009) Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • [16] Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008) Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela . Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela
    • [17] Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008) Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas . SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
    • [19] (2006) Darwiniana 44: 453-489
    • [20] (2006) Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438
    • [21] (2005) Darwiniana 43: 90-191
    • [22] (2005) Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo 4: 1-392. Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo
    • [23] Govaerts, R. (2003) World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS . The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [25] (2001) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666
    • [27] Welsh, S.L. (1998) Flora Societensis . E.P.S. Inc. Utah
    • [29] Govaerts, R. (1995) World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne
    • [36] Williams, R.O. (1947) Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(3): 144-162. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain

    Literature

    • [11] World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2010). Allamanda cathartica. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [14] Souza-Silva, R. F. de & Rapini, A. (2009). Allamanda calcicola (Apocynaceae), an overlooked new species from limestone outcrops in the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 64: 171-174.
    • [15] (2008) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500
    • [18] Rapini, A., van den Berg, C. & Liede-Schumann, S. (2007). Diversification of the Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) in the New World. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 94: 407-422.
    • [24] Rapini, A., Chase, M.W., Goyder, D.J. & Griffiths, J. (2003). Asclepiadeae classification: evaluating the phylogenetic relationships of New World Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae). Taxon 52: 33–50.
    • [26] Slamet Sutanti Budi Rahayu (2001). Allamanda L. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 2, eds J.L.C.H. Van Valkenburg & N. Bunyapraphatsara, pp. 49-52. Backhuys, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    • [28] Phillips, R. & Rix, M. (1997). Conservatory and Indoor Plants. Vol. 2. Pan Books, London.
    • [30] Akah P.A. & Offiah V.N. (1992). Gastrointestinal effects of Allamanda cathartica leaf extracts. Pharmaceutical Biology 30: 213-217.
    • [31] (1987) Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33
    • [32] Sakane, M. & Shepherd, G.J. (1986). Uma revisão do gênero Allamanda L. (Apocynaceae). Revista Brasileira de Botânica 9: 125-149.
    • [33] Herklots, G. (1976). Flowering Tropical Climbers. Dawson Science History Publications, Folkestone.
    • [34] (1975) Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84
    • [35] – R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 114, ill. (1949).
    • [37] (1935) Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
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    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
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