1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Triumfetta Plum. ex L.
      1. Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Tiliaceae, C. Whitehouse, M. Cheek, S. Andrews & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2001

    Habit
    Annual herb to perennial woody subshrub, 15 cm to 2 m tall; stem erect, to 1 cm diameter at base, red-brown, pubescent, scurfy, scabrid or glabrous above.
    Leaves
    Leaf blade rhombic to broadly or narrowly elliptic or ovate, 3-lobed to 1/2–3/4-way to base, rarely entire, 2.5–11.5(–17) cm long, 2.5–8(–10.5) cm wide, apex acute, rarely shortly acuminate, base cuneate to obtuse, 1–2-serrate-dentate, the tips of the proximal teeth replaced with black crater-like glands, subglabrous or more often subscabrid to thinly pubescent above, often deeply pubescent beneath; petiole terete, 1–4.5(–7) cm long, thickly pubescent; stipules narrowly elliptic to linear, to 4 mm long, 1 mm wide, black, falling early.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, 1–4-branched, (5–)10–35 cm long, nodes with reduced leaves becoming more linear and smaller towards the top, internodes 1.5–4 cm, each with 1–6 leaf-subopposed cymes; peduncles 2–3 mm long, each bearing (1–)3(–5) flowers; bracts as stipules 1–3.5 mm long; pedicels 1–2 mm long.
    Calyx
    Sepals narrowly elliptic to linear, 8–9 mm long, sparsely stellate-hairy outside, apical spine 0.25–0.5 mm long, conspicuously red in bud.
    Corolla
    Petals spathulate, 5–7 mm long, 1.5–2 mm wide, basal 1 mm hairy.
    Stamens
    Stamens (14–)15.
    Ovary
    Ovary sparsely hairy.
    Fruits
    Fruits 3–20 per node, indehiscent, globose, 5–7 mm diameter (fruit body 3–5 mm), densely covered in long white hairs, with ± 120 patent, glabrous or rarely subglabrous, dark brown spines, each with a translucent, forward directed recurved hair at the tip.
    Figures
    Fig. 13/1–5.
    Habitat
    Weed of cultivation, but also occurring in disturbed areas in the wild, particularly in bushland; 0–2750 m
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 pantropical
    [FWTA]

    Tiliaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A weedy undershrub, variable in habit and foliage
    Flowers
    Flowers orange or yellow.
    [FZ]

    Tiliaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Habit
    Very polymorphic species, usually annual but there seem to be perennial forms.
    Stem
    Stems almost glabrous to velvety or tomentose, up to c. 2 m. tall.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 2·5–15 × 2–10 cm., ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute at the apex, often 3-lobed, cordate or truncate at the base, 3–7-nerved from the base, irregularly serrate; petiole up to 5 cm. long; stipules c. 4 mm. long, linear-lanceolate, setose-pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences leafy, with the inflorescence leaves smaller and narrower than the cauline ones; cymes crowded at the nodes; peduncles of cymes and pedicels short, 1·5–3 mm. long; bracts c. 3 mm. long, linear, pubescent.
    Calyx
    Sepals 4–5 mm. long, linear, hooded towards the apex, stellate-pubescent outside or almost glabrous; subapical horn c. 0·5 mm. long, setulose-pubescent.
    Corolla
    Petals yellow, slightly shorter than the sepals, linear-oblanceolate, villous at the base.
    Androgynophore
    Androgynophore 0·25 mm. tall with circular glands: annulus villous on its upper margin.
    Stamens
    Stamens c. 15.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2–3-locular, closely setulose or echinulate.
    Fruits
    Fruit 4–5 mm. in diam. including the aculei, globose or ovoid-globose, its body densely tomentose; aculei uncinate at the apex, glabrous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, St.Helena, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

    Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 26, 2018 Takeuchi, W. et al. [14091], Papua New Guinea K000223872
    Jan 1, 2013 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [IMM 52], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734515
    May 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [8880], Cameroon K000026381
    May 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [9446], Cameroon K000026382
    May 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1796], Cameroon K000026377
    May 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [2499], Cameroon K000026378
    May 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [4046], Cameroon K000026380
    May 1, 2002 Sebsebe [5062], Cameroon K000026379
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [4591], Cameroon K000337689
    Dec 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [77], Cameroon K000337690
    Dec 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [374], Cameroon K000337688
    Apr 1, 1997 Cheek, M. [8475], Cameroon K000337692
    Apr 1, 1997 Munyenyembe, P. [809], Cameroon K000337691
    Sep 1, 1995 Cheek, M. [7287], Cameroon K000093790
    Sep 1, 1991 Cheek, M. [5652], Cameroon K000540301
    Jun 1, 1980 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8576], Cameroon K000094551
    Jan 1, 1958 Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000242101
    Jan 1, 1958 Krauss [56], South Africa K000242102
    Jan 1, 1958 Gerrard, W. T. [151], South Africa K000242103
    Hepper, F.N. [1987], Cameroon K000094555
    Morton, J.K. [6737], Cameroon K000094556
    Maitland, T.D. [135], Cameroon K000094550
    Maitland, T.D. [134], Cameroon K000094554
    Robertson, S.A. [7629], Kenya K000823781
    Meijer, W. [15375], Cameroon K000094553
    Bidgood, S. [5804], Tanzania K000468621
    K000241989
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000242104
    Rehmann, A. [6318], South Africa K000242105 Unknown type material
    Miller, A.G. [496], Yemen K000686929
    Hendelot [66], Niger K000241990 Unknown type material
    Don, G. [s.n.], West Tropical Africa K000232549
    Don, G [s.n.], Ghana K000232547
    Don, G [[3]], Ghana K000232548
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [13559], Brazil K001209594
    Brunt, M.A. [542], Cameroon K000094559
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1075], Myanmar Triumfetta angulata K001110952
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1075], India Triumfetta angulata K001110946
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1075], India Triumfetta angulata K001110947
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1075] Triumfetta angulata K001110948
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1075] Triumfetta angulata K001110949
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1075], India Triumfetta angulata K001110950
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1075] Triumfetta angulata K001110951
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1075] Triumfetta angulata K001110945
    Lindeman, J.C. [731], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209584
    Martius [1263], Rio de Janeiro Triumfetta bartramia K000381759 Unknown type material
    Schomburgk [271], Bahia Triumfetta bartramia K000381761 isotype
    Irwin, H.S. [17580], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209566
    Irwin, H.S. [21224], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209585
    Eiten, G. [2643], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209586
    Swainson [s.n.], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209590
    Lima, A. [s.n.], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209587
    Maas, P.J.M. [421], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209567
    Gardner, G. [s.n.], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209591
    Burchell, W.J. [8747], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209569
    Burchell, W.J. [8747], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209570
    Saltzmann [s.n.], Bahia Triumfetta bartramia K000381760
    Nascimento, M.S.B. [224], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209568
    Nascimento, M.S.B. [224], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209583
    Braga, J.M.A. [7213], Brazil Triumfetta bartramia K001209592

    First published in Enum. Syst. Pl.: 22 (1760)

    Accepted by

    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
    • Barua, K.N. & Khatry, P.K. (2009). Alien forest weeds in upper Brahmaputra valler and hill zones of Assam Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 414-422.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
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    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
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    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Whitehouse, C., Cheek, M., Andrews, S. & Verdcourt, B. (2001). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Tiliaceae & Muntingiaceae: 1-120.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
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    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Morat, P. (ed.) (1996). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 20: 1-145. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
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    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
    • Barua, K.N. & Khatry, P.K. (2009). Alien forest weeds in upper Brahmaputra valler and hill zones of Assam Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 414-422.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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