1. Family: Passifloraceae Juss. ex Roussel
    1. Genus: Passiflora L.
      1. Passiflora foetida L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

    [FTEA]

    Passifloraceae, W. J. J. O. de Wildem (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

    Habit
    Climber or creeper to 4 m., annual or biennial, subglabrous or whitish or yellowish-brown hairy to various degrees, ill-odoured; stem terete.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades entire or usually 3(–5)-lobed up to halfway, suborbicular to ovate in outline, base cordate, 3–10 by 3–10 cm., 3–5-nerved from near base, usually membranous; lobes up to 4 cm., usually acute-acuminate, margin entire or subentire with coarser gland-tipped hairs; petiole 1–6 cm.; stipules subreniform, 0.5–1 cm., deeply cleft into filiform gland-tipped processes.
    Glands
    Glands absent, except gland-tipped stronger hairs or processes on petiole, stipules, bracts, etc.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences sessile, 1(–2)-flowered, the straight peduncle 2–6 cm., inserted beside a simple tendril 5–15 cm.; bracts and bracteoles (1–)2–4 cm., deeply 2–4-pinnatisect, with filiform gland-tipped segments, forming an involucre just below and enveloping the flower.
    Flowers
    Flowers ± 3–5 cm. in diameter, pale pinkish or lilac, rarely white.
    Hypanthium
    Hypanthium short, saucer-shaped; sepals ovate-oblong to lanceolate, ± 1.5–2 cm., awned 2–4 mm. dorsally just below the apex.
    Corolla
    Petals oblong to lanceolate or ± spathulate, slightly shorter than the sepals.
    Corona
    Corona consisting of 2 outer series of threads ± 1 cm. long, and inward several series of capillary threads 1–2 mm.; operculum membranous, ± erect, denticulate; disk conspicuous, annular.
    Androgynophore
    Androgynophore 4–6 mm..
    Stamens
    Filaments flattened, ± 5–6 mm.; anthers 3–5 mm.
    Pistil
    Ovary globose to ellipsoid, ± 2–3.5 mm., usually glabrous; styles 4–5 mm.
    Fruits
    Fruit a rather dry berry, subglobose, 1.5–3 cm. in diameter, usually glabrous, yellowish to orange, ± enveloped by the persistent involucre.
    Seeds
    Seeds many, subovoid to ± cuneiform, ± 4–5 mm. long, obscurely 3-dentate at apex.
    Habitat
    Sometimes cultivated and often escaped, now common in disturbed places, on coastal sands, etc.; 0–2500 m.
    Distribution
    introduced throughout the tropics K4 P T3 T6 T8 Z
    [FZ]

    Passifloraceae, R. and A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Climbing unpleasant-smelling annual or biennial plant up to 4 m.
    Stem
    Stems yellowish, usually hirsute with yellowish ± spreading hairs and capitate-glandular cilia; internodes 4·5 cm. long or more.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina up to 11 × 11 cm., cordate at the base, 3(5)-palmatilobed, the lobes acute at the apex, entire or irregularly sinuate and dentate at the margin, membranous, sparsely hirsute with yellowish spreading hairs and capitate-glandular cilia; petiole up to 6 cm. long, usually hirsute like the stems, glandless; stipules deeply cleft into filiform gland-tipped divisions.
    Tendrils
    Sterile tendrils axillary, 10 cm. long or more, very sparsely hirsute.
    Peduncles
    Peduncle up to 6 cm. long, solitary.
    Bracts
    Bracts involucrate, 2–4-pinnatifid or -pinnatisect, rarely 1-pinnatifid, the segments filiform, gland-tipped.
    Flowers
    Flowers 2–5 cm. wide, white, pink, lilac or purplish.
    Calyx
    Sepals 1·5–2 cm., ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, dorsally horned below the apex.
    Corolla
    Petals oblong, oblong-lanceolate or oblong-spathulate, slightly shorter than the sepals.
    Corona
    Corona with the filaments in several rows, those of the 2 outer ones c. 1 cm. long, filiform, the others 1–2 mm. long, capillary.
    Operculum
    Operculum membranous, erect, denticulate.
    Fruits
    Fruit 1·5–3 cm. in diameter, globose or sub-globose, yellow to red.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 5 × 2·5 mm., ovate-cuneiform, obscurely tridentate at the apex, coarsely reticulate at the centre of each face.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Trepadora
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 0 - 1500 m.
    Habit
    Creeper.
    Conservation
    Least concern.
    Distribution
    Native from Colombia.
    Vernacular
    Mashula.
    [FWTA]

    Passifloraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Note
    Rank-scented
    Fruits
    Fruit yellow when ripe, edible
    Ecology
    Naturalized in waste places.
    [UPB]
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Chile North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Chile South, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malaya, Marianas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Northwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia, Zaïre

    Common Names

    Spanish
    Cinco llagas.

    Passiflora foetida L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2010 Yafid Gunawan [YG 7], Indonesia K000639134
    Jul 21, 2008 Rico, L. [1566], Bolivia K000295306
    Jan 1, 2008 Wood, J.R.I. [22446], Bolivia K000323789
    Apr 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [5123], Cameroon K000339139
    Apr 1, 2006 Darbyshire, I. [205], Cameroon K000339138
    Apr 1, 2006 Onana, J.-M. [2884], Cameroon K000339137
    Feb 17, 2005 Parnell [95-299], Thailand K000228312
    Jan 1, 1993 Mbani, J. M. [69], Cameroon K000381563
    Jan 1, 1972 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [10316], Cameroon K000050367
    Brazil 39501.000
    Faulkner, H. [2103], Tanzania 18073.000
    Jeffrey, C. [377], Seychelles 22917.000
    Maitland, T.D. [400], Cameroon K000050368
    Binuyo, A. [35169], Cameroon K000050370
    Fay, J.M. [8708], Central African Republic 55589.000
    Jowett, F.W. [30] 54504.000
    Daramola, B. O. [FHI 29807], Cameroon K000050369
    Gardner [1314], Alagoas Passiflora foetida var. gardneri K000018369
    Gardner [1314], Alagoas Passiflora foetida var. gardneri K000323329 isotype
    Spruce, R. [6458] Passiflora foetida var. gossypiifolia K000395156
    Coulter [61], Mexico Passiflora foetida var. gossypiifolia K000323450 isoparatype

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 959 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Islas-Hernández, C.S. & al. (2018). Flora de Guerrero 81: 1-92. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
    • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • van der Burg, W.J. (2014). Passifloraceae Flore du Gabon 46: 54-94. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Vanderplank, J. (2013). A revision of Passiflora section Dysosmia Curtis's Botanical Magazine 30: 318-390.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (2010). Flora of Thailand 10(2): 141-198. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Estrada Chavarría, A. (2009). Flores de pasión de Costa Rica: historia natural e identificación: 1-448. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica.
    • Vikraman, R/R/, Pandurangan, A.G. & Thulasidas, G. (2008). A study on the garden escaped exotics of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala Journal of East African Natural History 32: 765-781.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1996). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 10: 1-426. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
    • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or
    • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 284.
    • —F.T.A. 2: 520
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Kiew, R. & al. (eds.) (2018). Flora of peninsular Malaysia. Series II: Seed Plants. volume 7 Malayan Forest Records 49: 1-321.
    • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • van der Burg, W.J. (2014). Passifloraceae Flore du Gabon 46: 54-94. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Vanderplank, J. (2013). A revision of Passiflora section Dysosmia Curtis's Botanical Magazine 30: 318-390.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (2010). Flora of Thailand 10(2): 141-198. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Estrada Chavarría, A. (2009). Flores de pasión de Costa Rica: historia natural e identificación: 1-448. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica.
    • Vikraman, R/R/, Pandurangan, A.G. & Thulasidas, G. (2008). A study on the garden escaped exotics of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala Journal of East African Natural History 32: 765-781.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Missouri Botanic Garden (2005). Vascular Tropicos Nomenclatural Database http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1996). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 10: 1-426. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/