1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Crotalaria L.
      1. Crotalaria juncea L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Afghanistan to Indo-China.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Erect laxly branched annual, up to 1·6 m. tall.
    Stem
    Stem ribbed, appressed pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple; blade oblong-lanceolate, up to 75–130 mm. long, 14–22 mm. wide, narrowed to the rounded apex, thinly appressed pilose above, more conspicuously so beneath; petiole 3–5 mm. long.
    Stipules
    Stipules filiform, ± 2 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes lax, up to 10–25 cm. long, ± 8–20-flowered; bracts elliptic, acuminate, 3–5 mm. long; bracteoles inserted at the base of the calyx, linear, 2–5 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx slightly 2-lipped, 16–20 mm. long, brownish tomentellous, with other longer hairs interspersed; upper lobes narrowly attenuate oblong, up to 3–4 times as long as the tube.
    Corolla
    Standard elliptic to suborbicular, bright yellow, faintly reddish marked, with scattered hairs outside; wings a little shorter than the keel; keel abruptly rounded in the lower quarter, with a long slightly incurved twisted beak, 17–20 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Pod subsessile, cylindrical, up to 32–55 mm. long, 12–17 mm. across, tomentose with mostly short spreading hairs, ± 6-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblique-cordiform, with the narrow end strongly incurved, up to 6 mm. long, smooth to papillose around the hilum, very dark brown to black.
    Habitat
    Deciduous bushland and grassland, persisting as a weed of fallow fields; 0–1250 m.
    Distribution
    K7 T2 T8 pantropical crop plant, locally naturalized
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Ecology
    Africa: Cultivated
    Habit
    Annual/Perennial, Not climbing, Herb/Shrub
    Vernacular
    Cascavelle, Grand Sonnette, Grand Tcha-tcha, Hana, Krotalyariya Sitnikovaya, Sannai, Sonnette, Sunn, Sunn Crotalaria, Sunn Hemp, Sunnhemp, Tcha-tcha
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Erect laxly branched annual, up to 1.5(3) m tall; stem ribbed, appressed pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple; blade 6–15 × 0.5–3 cm, oblong-lanceolate, finely appressed pubescent on both surfaces, more conspicuously so beneath; petiole 3–5 mm long; stipules 1–2 mm long, filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 10–50 cm long, laxly 6–20-flowered; bracts 3–5 mm long, elliptic, acuminate; bracteoles at base of the calyx, 2–5 mm long, linear.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.6–2 cm long, slightly 2-lipped, brownish tomentellous, with longer hairs interspersed; upper lobes narrowly attenuate-triangular, up to 3–4 times as long as the tube.
    Corolla
    Standard elliptic to subcircular, bright yellow, faintly reddish marked or tinged, with scattered hairs outside; wings a little shorter than the keel; keel 1.7–2.2 cm long, subangular, with a long slightly incurved twisted beak.
    Fruits
    Pod subsessile, 3–5.5 × 1.2–1.7 cm, cylindrical, velvety tomentose, 6–12-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds 6–7 mm long, oblique-cordiform, with the radicular lobe strongly incurved, smooth to papillose around the hilum, dark brown to black.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 50 - 2000 m.; Andes, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba, subarbusto
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Chemical products, Environmental, Fibre, Food and Drink, Forage, Medicine, Miscellaneous, Toxins, Wood

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, East Himalaya, India, Laos, Myanmar, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cayman Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Iraq, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Paraguay, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Crotalaria juncea L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich [H.9.5363], Burma K000591133
    Wallich [H.9.5363], Burma K000591132
    Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000217167
    Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000217169
    leg. ign. [133], Australia K000217168
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5409] K001120814
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5409] K001120815
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5409] K001120816
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5409] K001120817
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5409] K001120818
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5397] Crotalaria viminea K001120774
    Noton, B. [Cat. no. 5397], India Crotalaria viminea K001120775
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5363], Myanmar Crotalaria porrecta K001120678
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5363], Myanmar Crotalaria porrecta K001120679
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5363] Crotalaria porrecta K001120680
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5395] Crotalaria benghalensis K001120772
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5368] Crotalaria tenuifolia K001120703
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5368] Crotalaria tenuifolia K001120704
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5368] Crotalaria tenuifolia K001120705

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 714 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. (2018). Flora of Thailand 4(3.1): 221-371. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Silva Flores, A. & De Azevedo Tozzi, A.M.G. (2018). A synopsis of the genus Crotalaria (Leguminosae) in Brazil Phytotaxa 346: 31-58.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Ninkaew, S. & al. (2017). Crotalaria L. (Fabaceae: Faboideae) in continental Southeast Asia Phytotaxa 320: 1-74.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Avendaño, N. (2011). Revisión taxonómica del género Crotalaria L. (Faboideae-Crotalarieae) en Venezuela Acta botanica Venezuelica 34: 13-78.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Rechinger, K.H. & al. (1984). Papilionaceae II Flora Iranica 157: 1-499. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Berhaut, J. (1976). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 5: 1-658. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Rechinger, K.H. & al. (1984). Papilionaceae II Flora Iranica 157: 1-499. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Berhaut, J. (1976). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 5: 1-658. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0