1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Crotalaria L.
      1. Crotalaria pallida Aiton

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa to Tropical Asia.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 5 - 1850 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba, arbusto
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Erect well-branched sometimes robust herb 1–2(3) m tall; branches densely appressed pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3(4)-foliolate; leaflets mostly 3–13 × 2.5–7 cm, elliptic to obovate, appressed puberulous beneath; petiole ± as long as leaflets or shorter; stipules up to 3 mm long, filiform, deciduous, or absent.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes shortly pedunculate, mostly 15–30 cm long, many-flowered; bracts up to 5 mm long, linear, caducous before the flowers open; bracteoles at the base of the calyx, similar but smaller.
    Calyx
    Calyx 6–7.5 mm long, becoming basally truncate and deflexed against the pedicel, ± densely appressed pubescent; lobes narrowly triangular-acuminate, subequal to or longer than the tube.
    Corolla
    Standard elliptic, yellow, usually veined reddish-brown, glabrous outside; wings much shorter than the keel; keel 1.2–1.4(1.5) cm long, shallowly rounded, with a narrow somewhat projecting pointed beak (slightly incurved only at the tip), yellowish-green, sometimes conspicuously lined brown or purple.
    Fruits
    Pod 3.8–5 × 0.6–0.8 cm, shortly stipitate, subcylindrical, sometimes slightly curved, puberulous, usually glabrescent, 30–40-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 3.5 mm long, oblique-cordiform, smooth to minutely papillose, brown or mottled ochre and dark grey-green.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Erect well-branched annual or short-lived perennial, up to 1–2(–3) m. tall.
    Stem
    Stem with short appressed hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3(–4)-foliolate; leaflets variable, elliptic, obovate-elliptic or obovate, up to 40–110 mm. long, 25–52 (–70) mm. wide, glabrous above, thinly appressed puberulous beneath; petiole ± 20–85 mm. long.
    Stipules
    Stipules filiform, up to 3 mm. long, caducous, or absent.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes shortly pedunculate, up to 15–30 cm. long, with many fairly closely arranged flowers; bracts linear, up to 5 mm. long, caducous before the flowers open; bracteoles inserted at the base of the calyx, filiform, up to 1–3 mm. long, but sometimes small and obscure.
    Calyx
    Calyx becoming basally truncate and deflexed against the pedicel, 6–7·5·mm. long, appressed puberulous; lobes narrow, acuminate, subequal to or longer than the tube.
    Corolla
    Standard elliptic, yellow, often veined reddish-brown, glabrous outside; wings much shorter than the keel; keel rather shallowly rounded about the middle, with a narrow slightly projecting untwisted beak, 12–14(–15) mm. long, yellowish-green, usually conspicuously veined brown or purple.
    Fruits
    Pod shortly stipitate, subcylindrical, sometimes slightly curved, 38–46 mm. long, 6–8 mm. across, puberulous, usually glabrescent, ± 30–40-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblique-cordiform, ± 3·5 mm, long, smooth or minutely papillose, mottled ochre and dark grey-green, or brown.
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Guinea-Congolia/Sudania regional transition zone; grasslands., Lake Victoria regional transition zone; grasslands, Sudanian grasslands, Tongaland-Pondoland regional transition zone - grassland., Zambezian grassland, Guinea-Congolia/Zambezia region
    Habit
    Annual/Perennial, Not climbing, Herb/Shrub
    Vernacular
    Aika, Aikaberavina, Aikavavy, Ambarivatrindoly, Amberivatrindolo, Brusquillo, Cascabelitos, Cascavelle Trois Feuilles, Ding Ding, Guiso-de-cascavel, Kirintsa, Kitsonakoho, Mato-pasto-branco, Pine Kotalelia, San, Sen, Smooth Crotalaria, Streaked Rattlepod,
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Domestic, Environmental, Food and Drink, Forage, Medicine, Toxins, Weed

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Belize, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Jawa, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Northern Territory, Peru, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sumatera, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Western Australia, Windward Is.

    Crotalaria pallida Aiton appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2001 Souza, M.G.C. [20], Brazil K000893260
    Dec 1, 2000 Gottsberger, G.K. [11-29468], Brazil K000893253
    May 1, 1995 Folli, D.A. [1748], Brazil K000893259
    May 1, 1995 Farias, G.L. [456], Bahia K000187716
    Sep 1, 1992 Coradin, L. [8677], Bahia K000187987
    Jun 1, 1992 Agra, M.F. [1195], Paraíba K000187715
    Sep 9, 1988 Eden, M.J. [s.n.], Brazil K000893261
    Mar 1, 1983 Lewis, G.P. [749], Bahia K000187714
    Jan 7, 1983 Vianna, M.C. [914], Brazil K000893258
    Jan 1, 1983 Hage, J.L. [474], Bahia K000187710
    Apr 6, 1981 Winder, J.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000893256
    Apr 6, 1981 Winder, J.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000893257
    Mar 9, 1979 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000893244
    Nov 28, 1978 Weiss [1576], Brazil K000893245
    Nov 1, 1973 Pabst, G.F.J. [4502], Brazil K000893246
    Nov 1, 1973 Burchell [1576], Brazil K000893247
    Nov 1, 1973 Pohl [s.n.], Brazil K000893251
    Nov 1, 1973 Dusén, P. [9720], Brazil K000893250
    Nov 1, 1973 Miers, J. [3390], Brazil K000893249
    Nov 1, 1973 Gillivray, J.M. [268], Brazil K000893243
    Nov 1, 1973 Guillemin [105], Brazil K000893255
    Nov 1, 1973 Schubert [s.n.], Brazil K000893254
    Nov 1, 1973 Rolland, G. [10], Ceará K000187712
    Nov 1, 1973 Rolland, G. [s.n.], Ceará K000187711
    Nov 1, 1973 Malme [22], Brazil K000893242
    Nov 1, 1973 Glaziou [8403], Brazil K000893239
    Nov 1, 1973 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000893240
    Nov 1, 1973 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000893248
    Nov 1, 1973 Gardner [5427], Brazil K000893241
    Jan 1, 1965 Maitland, T.D. [115], Cameroon K000086912
    McWhirter, J. [60], Madagascar 32187.000
    Eiten, G. [2362], Brazil K000893238
    Semir, J. [1955], Brazil K000893262
    Pickersgill, B. [RU72136], Bahia K000187713
    Ferrucci, M.S. [1074], Bahia K000188116
    illegible [3608], Sri Lanka K000591112
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K000893252
    [Peverely/illegible] [s.n.], Sri Lanka K000591113
    Yuncker, T.G [8241], Honduras K001088766

    First published in Hort. Kew. 3: 20 (1789)

    Accepted by

    • Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. (2018). Flora of Thailand 4(3.1): 221-371. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
    • Silva Flores, A. & De Azevedo Tozzi, A.M.G. (2018). A synopsis of the genus Crotalaria (Leguminosae) in Brazil Phytotaxa 346: 31-58.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Avendaño, N. (2011). Revisión taxonómica del género Crotalaria L. (Faboideae-Crotalarieae) en Venezuela Acta botanica Venezuelica 34: 13-78.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Avendaño, N. (2011). Revisión taxonómica del género Crotalaria L. (Faboideae-Crotalarieae) en Venezuela Acta botanica Venezuelica 34: 13-78.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0