1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Crotalaria L.
      1. Crotalaria retusa L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Erect annual or short-lived perennial, 0.5–1.5 m tall, usually well branched; branches slightly ribbed, subdensely covered with short hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple; blade 3.5–11 × 1.5–4 cm, oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, finely appressed pubescent beneath; petiole c. 2–4 mm long; stipules 1–5 mm long, linear or subulate.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 10–30 cm long, many-flowered; bracts c. 2–6 mm long, subulate-caudate to lanceolate-caudate; bracteoles on the pedicel, 1–2 mm long, filiform.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.1–1.4 cm long, glabrous to appressed puberulous; upper lobes broadly lanceolate-triangular, longer than the tube.
    Corolla
    Standard obovate-circular, pale yellow, veined and outside often suffused reddish-purple, usually puberulous along the midvein outside; wings oblong-obovate, longer than the keel, bright yellow; keel 1.3–1.5 cm long, rounded, with a fairly short slightly incurved twisted beak.
    Fruits
    Pod shortly stipitate, (3)4–5 × 1–1.8 cm, oblong-clavate, glabrous, c. 12–20-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 5–5.5 mm long, oblique-cordiform, with the narrow end strongly incurved, finely papillose, yellowish or brown.
    [FWTA]

    Papilionaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A hall-shrubby herb, 2–4 ft. high
    Ecology
    Of waste land
    Flowers
    Flowers conspicuous, 3/4–1 in. long, in long loose racemes, yellow with purple veining.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2450 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba, subarbusto
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Zanzibar-Inhambane regional transition zone; anthropic habitats., Zanzibar-Inhambane regional transition zone; grassland., Guinea-Congolian anthropic landscapes
    Habit
    Annual/Perennial, Not climbing, Herb/Shrub
    Vernacular
    Akondrondolo, Akondronjaza, Amberivatrindolo, Cachimbito, Cascabelillo, Cascavelle Jaune, Casse-cavelle, Chinchin, Faliakoho, Famonakoho, Ghunghunian, Hintsakintsaka, Kaha-andana-hiriya, Kilukiluppai, Kinesakinesa, Kinsakinsa, Kitsakitsanakoho, Kitsakitsa
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Erect annual or short-lived perennial, up to 1·3 m. tall, usually well branched.
    Stem
    Stem obscurely ribbed, densely appressed puberulous to spreading pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple; blade oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, up to 35–105 mm. long, 18–38 mm. wide, rounded or emarginate at the apex, glabrous above, finely appressed pubescent beneath; petiole ± 2–4 mm. long.
    Stipules
    Stipules subulate or filiform, 1–5 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes up to 30 cm. long, but often considerably less, laxly or densely many-flowered; bracts subulate-caudate to lanceolate-caudate, ± 2–6 mm. long; bracteoles inserted on the upper part of the pedicel, filiform, ± 1–2 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx 11–14 mm. long, with the tube protracted on the lower side, glabrous or with small scattered appressed hairs; upper lobes broadly lanceolate-triangular, longer than the tube.
    Corolla
    Standard obovate-orbicular, pale yellow, often finely purplish veined inside and reddish diffused outside with darker veins, usually with a few hairs along the midvein outside; wings oblong-obovate, longer than the keel, bright yellow; keel rounded, with a rather short slightly incurved twisted beak, 13–15 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Pod shortly stipitate, oblong-clavate, up to 40–48 mm. long, 13–18 mm. across, glabrous, ± 12–20-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblique-cordiform, with the narrow end strongly incurved, ± 5–5·5 mm. long, finely papillose, yellowish or brown.
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Domestic, Environmental, Fibre, Food and Drink, Medicine, Miscellaneous, Toxins, Weed

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Kenya, Maldives, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Galápagos, Hainan, India, Iran, Jawa, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Northern Territory, Oman, Panamá, Philippines, Rodrigues, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Crotalaria retusa L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 13, 2015 Hormia, Kristina [178], Mexico K001041108
    Jun 1, 2009 Silva, J.M. [4953], Brazil K000893316
    Jan 31, 2008 Balée, W.L. [1548], Brazil K000893315
    Jun 1, 2004 Fonseca, M.L. [2559], Brazil K000893314
    Mar 1, 2002 Thomas, W.W. [11652], Bahia K000187978
    Jan 1, 1998 Coradin, L. [7865], Ceará K000187984
    Jan 1, 1997 Silva, G.P. [2480], Rio Grande do Norte K000187725
    Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [5811], Cameroon K000011945
    Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7769], Cameroon K000540387
    Jan 1, 1996 Ekema, N. [406], Cameroon K000518565
    May 1, 1995 Sant'Ana, S.C. [17], Bahia K000187731
    Jan 1, 1995 Baker, W.J. [308], Cameroon K000437639
    Jan 1, 1995 Madsen, J.E. [17], Burkina Faso K000386683
    Mar 1, 1983 Lewis, G.P. [821], Bahia K000187723
    Jan 1, 1983 Hage, J.L. [1165], Bahia K000187734
    Jan 1, 1983 Hage, J.L. [719], Bahia K000187733
    Jan 1, 1980 Pereira, E. [5746], Pernambuco K000187721
    Jan 1, 1980 Eiten, G. [10331], Brazil K000893310
    Jan 1, 1980 Silva, N.T. [58350], Bahia K000187722
    Jan 1, 1980 Hostmann [593], Surinam K000500558 isotype
    Jan 1, 1980 Glaziou [6196], Brazil K000893312
    Jan 1, 1980 Gardner [5986], Brazil K000893313
    Oct 1, 1979 Dobereiner, J. [1494], Bahia K000187730
    Oct 1, 1979 Dobereiner, J. [1497], Bahia K000187729
    Jan 1, 1979 Yuncker, T.G [8088], Honduras K001088764
    Nov 1, 1973 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000893309
    Jan 1, 1963 Pires, J.M. [52576], Brazil K000893308
    Hepper, F.N. [3735], Mali K000386681
    McWhirter, J. [31], Madagascar 31910.000
    McWhirter, J. [35], Madagascar 32178.000
    Pabst, G. [4503], Brazil K000893307
    Mori, S.A. [9270], Bahia K000187732
    Pickersgill, B. [RU72275], Ceará K000187724
    Duarte, A.P. [5906], Bahia K000187726
    Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000217196
    Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000217197
    Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000217198
    Madsen, J.E. [5957], Burkina Faso K000386684
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5405] K001120797
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5405], Myanmar K001120798
    Fróes, R.L. [1761], Brazil K000893306
    Travassos, O. [142], Bahia K000187728
    Athayde, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000187727
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000893311
    Yeates [19], Mali K000386680
    Daramola, B. O. [FHI 35534], Cameroon K000087264
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5405] K001120789
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5405] K001120790
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5405] K001120791
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5405], India K001120792
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5405] K001120793
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5405] K001120794
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5405], Vietnam K001120795
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5405] K001120796
    Molina, A. [34839], Honduras K001088765

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 715 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. (2018). Flora of Thailand 4(3.1): 221-371. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
    • Silva Flores, A. & De Azevedo Tozzi, A.M.G. (2018). A synopsis of the genus Crotalaria (Leguminosae) in Brazil Phytotaxa 346: 31-58.
    • Ninkaew, S. & al. (2017). Crotalaria L. (Fabaceae: Faboideae) in continental Southeast Asia Phytotaxa 320: 1-74.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • da Silva e Silva, W.L., Cajueiro Gurgel, E.S., Moreira dos Santos, J.U. & Falcão da Silva, M. (2013). Inventário e distribuição geográfica de Leguminosae no arquipélago de Marajó, PA, Brazil Hoehnea 40: 627-647.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Avendaño, N. (2011). Revisión taxonómica del género Crotalaria L. (Faboideae-Crotalarieae) en Venezuela Acta botanica Venezuelica 34: 13-78.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (2007). Flora of the Sultanate of Oman. volume 2. Crassulaceae - Apiaceae Scripta Botanica Belgica 36: 1-220.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Berhaut, J. (1976). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 5: 1-658. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Wilczek in Fl. Congo Belge 4: 90.
    • Chev. Bot. 170
    • Bak. f. in J. Linn. Soc. 42: 270
    • —F.T.A. 2: 13
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • da Silva e Silva, W.L., Cajueiro Gurgel, E.S., Moreira dos Santos, J.U. & Falcão da Silva, M. (2013). Inventário e distribuição geográfica de Leguminosae no arquipélago de Marajó, PA, Brazil Hoehnea 40: 627-647.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Avendaño, N. (2011). Revisión taxonómica del género Crotalaria L. (Faboideae-Crotalarieae) en Venezuela Acta botanica Venezuelica 34: 13-78.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (2007). Flora of the Sultanate of Oman. volume 2. Crassulaceae - Apiaceae Scripta Botanica Belgica 36: 1-220.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Berhaut, J. (1976). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 5: 1-658. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Torre in Consp. Fl. Angol. 3: 32 (1962).
    • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 548 (1958).
    • Wilczek in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 4: 90 (1953).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 182 (1952).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 218, fig. (1949).
    • Harms in A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3 (1): 549 (1915).
    • Bak. f. in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 42: 270 (1914).
    • Taub. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 204 (1895).
    • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 13 (1871).
    • DC., Prodr. 2: 125 (1825).
    • Sims in Bot. Mag. 52, t. 2561 (1825).
    • Bot. Reg. 3, t. 253 (1818).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 715 (1753).
    International Legume Database and Information Service
    • Kumar, S. & Sane PV (2003). Legumes of South Asia: a check-list. RBG Kew.
    • Du Puy, D. J. et al. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar. RBG Kew.
    • Senaratna, L. K. (2001). A check list of the flowering plants of Sri Lanka. Colombo.
    • Welsh, S. L. (1998). Flora Societensis
    • Naskar, K. (1993). Plant Wealth of the Lower Ganga Delta Vol. 1
    • Rudd, V. E. (1991). A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon 7: 108-381.
    • Hacker, J. B. (1990). A Guide to Herbaceous and Shrub Legumes of Queensland.
    • Polhill, R, M. (1990). Legumineuses. In: Flore des Mascareignes, Vol 80. J. Bosser et a
    • Robertson, S. A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles. Kew
    • Strahm, W. (1989). Plant Red Data Book for Rodrigues
    • Howard, R. A. et al. (1988). Dicotyledoneae Part 1. Fl. Lesser Antilles Arnold Arboretum
    • Liogier, A. H. (1988). Desc. Flora Puerto Rico & Adjacent Is-Spermatophyta Vol. II
    • Singh, N. P. (1988). Flora of Eastern Karnataka Vol. 1
    • Chandrabose, M. & Nair, N. C. (1987). Flora of Coimbatore
    • Thuan, N. et al. (1987). In: Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam, Vol. 23. P.
    • Ambasta, S. P. (1986). The useful plants of India
    • Liogier, A. H. (1985). La Flore de la Espanola. III
    • Correll, D. S. & Correll, H. B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. 1692pp J. Cramer
    • Polhill, R. M. (1982). A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam 389pp Crotalaria in Africa & Madagasca
    • Verdcourt, B. (1979). A Manual of New Guinea Legumes. Office of Forests, Lae, PNG
    • Fournet, J. (1978). Flore illustree des phanerogames de Guadeloupe & Martinique
    • Steyermark, J. A. & Huber, O. (1978). Flora del Avila 514-565 Leguminosae (Fabaceae)
    • Adams, C. D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica Univ. West Indies, Mona, Jamaica
    • Gillett, J. B. et al. (1971). Papilionoideae. In: Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Milne-Redhead & Polhill
    • Leon, H. & Alain, H. (1951). Flora de Cuba 2:224-367 Leguminosas
    • Standley, P. C. & Steyermark, J. A (1946). Fieldiana, Bot. 24(5) :1-425 Leguminosae
    • Willis, J. C. & Gardiner, J. S. (1901). Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Peradeniya) 1:45-164 Botany of Maldive Is.
    • Baker, J. G. (1877). Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0