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This species is accepted, and its native range is Philippines (Mindanao).
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium


Coode, M. (2007). Elaeocarpus for Flora Malesiana: E. forbesii, a Philippine Species with Unusual Features, and Some Possible 'Associates'. Kew Bulletin, 62(2), 321-328. Retrieved from

This must also be presumed to be endangered if not already extinct. Known only from the type.
Morphology General Habit
Tree 20 m high
Morphology Leaves
Leaves spirally arranged, loosely grouped towards twig tips; petioles (2.5 -)4 - 6 cm long, 1.5 - 2 mm wide, glabrous or almost so, probably rounded or flat in apical third above, distinct from leaf-base, swollen at apex and base; blades coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, 2.5 - 2.9 x as long as wide, 17 - 23 cm (from Merrill l.c.) x 7.5 - 10 cm, sometimes with a short broad acumen, obtuse at apex (c. 900), cuneate to broadly cuneate at base or tapering towards a narrowly rounded base, slightly glossy above, glabrous beneath when mature
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules: caducous, linear-subulate to narrow-triangular, triangular in transverse section, glabrous, tough (two seen), c. 2 mm long, entire with a few hairs at base
Morphology Leaves Leaf veins
Leaves with 12 - 13 pairs of main lateral veins ('c. 10' in Merrill.), fine venation network clear and raised above, about as strong as lateral veins with areoles squarish and more than 2 mm across, midrib strongly prominent beneath (but not very prominent above: see E. forbesii), main laterals prominent beneath and breaking up three-quarters to seven-eighths inside margin or and running almost to margin, margins weakly serrate with serrations similar throughout the leaf-length, teeth 9 - 25 mm apart
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens: 18, inserted ± between disk and ovary; filaments straight or somewhat incurved, 1.5 mm long, not tapering or tapering from base to apex, with a few short hairs, anthers minutely fairly densely hairy, 2.5 - 3.3 mm long, with outer tooth longer than inner, without awn or beak but acuminate at apex, without setae at tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals: 7 x 2 - 3(- 3.5) mm, with short ± adpressed hairs outside, mostly glabrous inside but minutely hairy towards tip, without keel inside at base or with a low keel fading towards tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals: thick membranous, just translucent, obovate to oblong, slightly narrowed in lower third, 6.5 - 7 mm long, 2.5 - 3 mm wide at widest point of limb, rounded at apex, divided into 15 - 19 apical divisions usually grouped into lobes, but lobes not very obvious, laciniae in pairs or sometimes threes, often with a weak median lobe, divisions linear to narrow triangular, 1 - 3 mm long, acute at tip, petals densely short-hairy outside, margins densely short-hairy throughout, obviously hairy on keel and margins inside but with glabrous areas between, keel single, present inside, ± curved at halfway (transverse section) and weakly 2-pocketed at base, the margins only somewhat infolded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk: annular, toothed, 0.5 mm high, short-hairy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary: short-hairy, 3-locular; ovules 4 per loculus; style tapering to a point and crooked at tip, 4 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes: amongst current leaves, 4 - 11 cm long (in K isotype all short; 9 - 11 cm in Merrill l.c.), axis 1 - 1.5 mm thick and with hairs variously sparse or fairly dense, short, straight and adpressed, c. 10-flowered (uncertain: Merrill stated 'few-flowered'), flowers bisexual, 4 - 5 merous (even 6-merous, Merrill l.c.); bracts early caducous, oblong to lanceolate (Merrill l.c.), 3 - 5 mm long; pedicels 1 - 1.5 mm long; buds ± ovoid, acute
Morphology Twigs
Twigs: sparse, short, straight, adpressed hairs at tip, probably c. 4 mm thick towards the tip (twig tip missing at K)
Merrill stated the twigs were glabrous hut they are ± sparsely short-adpressed-sericeous on the surface behind the broken off tip at K. E. surigaensis is like E. forbesii in very distant leaf crenations, short racemes with few flowers, flower size and aspect, and many floral details. It differs in larger leaves with more numerous veins, longer pedicels, and shorter hairs on petals and ovary, giving a quite different aspect, and a slightly shorter style. I feel fairly sure that, if fruit is found, this species will be found to be close to E. forbesii.
Philippines, Mindanao, Surigao Province, near Mabini, 50 m, fl. 11 May 1916, S.S. Ponce FB 26000 (holotype PNH†; isotype K!)

Native to:


Elaeocarpus surigaensis Merr. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 19, 2003 Ponce, S.S. [26000], Philippines K000708317

First published in Philipp. J. Sci., C 13: 28 (1918)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.


Kew Bulletin

  • Merrill, E. D. (1918). New or noteworthy Philippine plants. Philip. J. Sci. Bot. 13: 1-66.

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.