1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum trichoides Sw.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; slender; 15-100 cm long. Leaf-sheaths hispid; outer margin hairy. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base simple, or cordate; asymmetrical. Leaf-blades lanceolate, or ovate; 3-7 cm long; 5-20 mm wide; membranous. Leaf-blade surface pilose. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong, or ovate; 6-16 cm long. Panicle branches capillary. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; gibbous; obtuse; 1-1.5 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; gibbous; obtuse; 1-1.5 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.25-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 3-5 -veined; pubescent; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 0.8-1.2 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma surface granulose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, east tropical, and southern tropical. Asia-temperate: Arabia and China. Asia-tropical: Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. North America: south-central USA and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Ascending annual about 30 cm, high.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Delicate annual with decumbent culms 15–100 cm. long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 3–7 cm. long and 5–20 mm. wide, lanceolate or narrowly ovate, thin, pilose, acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 5–15(25) cm. long, broadly ovate to ovate-oblong, finely branched, the branching regular.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1–1.5 mm. long, asymmetrically ovate, puberulous, bluntly acute; inferior glume up to 1/2 the length of the spikelet, 1-nerved, separated from the superior glume by a short internode; superior glume 3–5-nerved; inferior lemma 3–5-nerved, its palea poorly developed, sterile; superior lemma and palea usually pallid, granulose.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Delicate annual; culms slender, 15–100 cm. long, often branched, decumbent or ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-sheaths often stiffly hairy and ciliately fringed; blades lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 3–7 cm. long, 5–20 mm. wide, cordate or asymmetrically narrowed at the base, thin, pilose, acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle ovate-oblong, 6–16 cm. long, rarely more, finely branched, the branching usually symmetrical.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate, asymmetric in side view, 1–1.5 mm. long, sparsely to densely pubescent, blunt; lower glume broadly ovate, up to 1/2 the length of the spikelet, 1-nerved, acute, separated from the rest of the spikelet by a short internode; upper glume as long as the spikelet or slightly shorter, 3–5-nerved; lower lemma 3–5-nerved, sterile, its palea poorly developed; upper lemma finely granulose.
    Habitat
    Forest shade; 0–900 m.
    Distribution
    K7 T6 T8 U2 tropical America, probably introduced into tropical Africa and Malaya
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Perennial with slender pubescent rhizomes; culms 40–100 cm. high, wiry at the base.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 9–27 cm. × 2–6 mm., acute.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 8–18 cm. long, oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2.4–2.8 mm. long, oblong, glabrous, obtuse; inferior glume broadly ovate 1/3 the length of the spikelet, 3-nerved; superior glume 5-nerved; inferior lemma 5-nerved, male, its palea well developed; superior lemma transversely rugulose.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated; scaly; hairy. Culms 40-100 cm long; wiry. Lateral branches lacking, or sparse. Leaf-sheaths pilose. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 9-27 cm long; 2-6 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface pilose; sparsely hairy. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong; 8-18 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; obtuse; 2.4-2.8 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; obtuse; 2.4-2.8 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.33 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; without grooves. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.4-2.8 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface rugose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate. Palea surface rugose.
    Distribution
    Africa: southern tropical.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FZ 2007.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Central African Repu, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, Ghana, Hainan, Jawa, Kenya, Lesser Sunda Is., Mozambique, New Guinea, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Oman, Philippines, Queensland, Solomon Is., Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Panicum trichoides Sw. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 1998 Bona Nascimento, M.S. [1337], Brazil K001078664
    Jan 1, 1988 Nee, M.H. [34549], Brazil K001078667
    Oct 10, 1986 Andrews, C.W. [s.n.], Christmas I. K000290306 isotype
    Jan 1, 1973 Grear, J.W. [14984], Brazil K001078668
    Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [3708], Brazil K001078678
    Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [4474], Brazil K001078680
    Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [3840a], Brazil K001078681
    Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [3860], Brazil K001078677
    Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [4494], Brazil K001078684
    Hinton, G.B. [6690], Guerrero K000476067
    Hinton, G.B. [9376], Guerrero K000476068
    Hinton, G.B. [2002], México State K000476069
    Hinton, G.B. [2153], México State K000476070
    Hinton, G.B. [2249], México State K000476071
    Hinton, G.B. [2642], México State K000476066
    Hunt, D.R. [6051], Brazil K001078685
    Ridley, H.N. [s.n.], Fernando de Noronha K000003665
    Kerr, A.F.G. [8023], Thailand K000620785
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11114], Thailand K000620786
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11114], Thailand K000620787
    Kerr, A.F.G. [16154], Thailand K000620788
    Banks, J. [s.n.] K000309172
    Gardner [3509], Brazil K000309227
    Gardner [3509], Brazil K000309228
    Ratter, J.A. [R 1068], Brazil K001078687
    Coradin, L. [1263], Brazil K001078665
    Coradin, L. [1987], Brazil K001078666
    Put [3244], Thailand K000620783
    Put [3244], Thailand K000620784
    Salzmann [s.n.], Bahia K000003664 isotype
    Eiten, G. [10587], Brazil K001078679
    Eiten, G. [10812], Brazil K001078682
    Eiten, G. [10387], Brazil K001078683
    Gardner, G. [6186], Brazil K001078674
    Lazarides, M. [7447], Thailand K000682759
    Burchell, W.J. [8706], Brazil K001078672
    Burchell, W.J. [8472], Brazil K001078670
    Burchell, W.J. [8472], Brazil K001078671
    Baker, C.F. [5], Brazil K001078673
    Rattray [1270], Zimbabwe K000282479 Unknown type material
    Rattray [1270], Zimbabwe K000282480 holotype
    Rattray [1270], Zimbabwe K000282481 holotype
    Murray, H.B. [s.n.] K000309171
    Ryves, T.B. [KS95/036], Thailand K000682760
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [12267], Brazil K001078676
    Hatschbach, G.G. [34113], Brazil K001078686
    Spruce, R. [466], Brazil K001078675
    Spruce, R. [466], Brazil K001078669

    First published in Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 24 (1788)

    Accepted by

    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 730.
    • Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 24 (1788)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 429 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 59 (1965).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 38 (1958).
    • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 2: 222 (1934).
    • Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ: 24 (1788).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0