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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World, America.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs with erect prostrate or twining stems
Morphology Leaves
Leaves entire, lobed or compound
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers axillary, solitary or in few- to many-flowered cymes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals often unequal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla usually funnel-shaped, usually almost entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollen
Pollen spinulose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2–5-celled, usually with 4 ovules; style filiform; stigmas 2, globular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 3–10-valved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually 4, glabrous, pubescent or covered with very long hairs.
Distribution
Some 650 species mainly in tropical parts of the world.

[FZ]

Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Annuals, biennials or perennials, herbaceous, suffruticose or sometimes woody plants.
Morphology Stem
Stems woody or herbaceous, usually twining or prostrate, sometimes erect.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petioleate or rarely sessile exceedingly variable in shape and size, entire or lobed to deeply divided, simple or rarely compound; pseudo-stipules sometimes present.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, solitary or in few to many-flowered cymes, sometimes aggregated at the apices of shoots pseudo-capitate, or enclosed in an involucre or in cymes, rarely forming a terminal leafy panicle; peduncles short or long, rarely almost nil; pedicels usually distinct, rarely almost nil; bracts and bracteoles various, sometimes leafy, free or forming an involucre.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, very variable in size and shape, often unequal, membranaceous to coriaceous, persistent, often more or less enlarged in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla usually regular, rarely faintly zygomorphic, usually funnel-shaped or the tube somewhat campanulate, sometimes hypocrateriform, usually not conspicuously lobed, variously coloured.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5, usually unequal, inserted near the base of the corolla tube, subincluded or sometimes exserted; filaments filiform or somewhat linear, often dilated and hairy or papillate at the base; anthers ovate to linear; pollen globose, spinose or spinulose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk annular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2-3-4, or rarely 5-locular, usually 4-ovuled, rarely with 6–10 ovules; style filiform, included to exserted; stigma 2-globular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose to avoid, 3–10-valved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually 4 (rarely less by abortion or up to 10), glabrous, pubescent or clothed (sometimes only partly) with very long hairs.

[FTEA]

Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Annual, biennial or perennial herbs or shrubs; stems woody or herbaceous, prostrate, twining or erect
Morphology General Indumentum
Indumentum in the African species never stellate
Morphology Leaves
Leaves exceedingly variable, entire or lobed, simple or rarely compound; pseudo-stipules sometimes present
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, solitary or in few- to many-flowered cymes, sometimes aggregated at the apices of shoots or enclosed in an involucre
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals very variable in size and shape, often unequal, foliaceous to coriaceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla regular, usually funnel-shaped, rarely trumpet-shaped, the limb sometimes salver-shaped, usually not conspicuously lobed, variously coloured
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollen
Pollen spinose or spinulose (Fig. 22/8, p. 131)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2-, 3-, 4- or rarely 5-locular, usually 4-ovuled, rarely 6–10–ovuled.; style filiform; stigma biglobular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid or globose, 3–10–valved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually 4 (rarely 3 or up to 10), glabrous, pubescent or clothed (sometimes only partly) with very long hairs.

[KBu]

Wood JRL & Scotland RW. 2017. Notes on Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) from the Amazonian periphery. Kew Bulletin. 72:10. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9682-9

Ecology
Apparently growing in cloud forest near streams in the coastal sierra of Venezuela between 1500 and 1800 m approximately.
Conservation
Based on an area of occurrence of slightly more than 17,000 km this species might be classified as Vulnerable (VU) but based on an area of occupancy of 24,000 km2 it might be classified as Endangered (EN). Given the relative accessibility of the cloud forest in Andean Venezuela over more than 150 years and the paucity of records, the categorisation of Endangered (EN) would seem correct, particularly as several of the recorded sites linear centres of population. Some populations may lie within one or more of the protected areas established in Andean Venezuela but this requires confirmation.
Note
Map 4 shows the somewhat disjunct populations of Ipomoea retropilosa in Venezuela. Although there is variation in the density of the indumentum, no clear geographical patterning in this variation was observed. Plants nearly identical to Ipomoea retropilosa also grow very locally in Colombia but differ in the completely glabrous sepals. In the absence of any other discernible differences we treat this distinct population as a subspecies as follows:
Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, lianas or small trees, white latex sometimes present, habit various but most commonly twining or sprawling, frequently trailing, less often ascending or erect; rootstock varied but at least sometimes thickened and tuberous, unknown in many species; indumentum usually of simple eglandular hairs but occasionally branched, stellate or (very rarely) T-shaped in form
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, without stipules, most commonly petiolate, ovate with a truncate, cordate or sagittate base, less commonly and principally in the erect species sessile or shortly petiolate, oblong, obovate or linear with a cuneate or attenuate base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of usually pedunculate, axillary cymes borne in the axils of the upper leaves, the cymes often compounded with secondary and tertiary peduncles, sometimes corymbose or racemose in form, occasionally aggregated into terminal panicles, very occasionally arising on small axillary branchlets; bracteoles present but often caducous and inconspicuous; calyx of 5 free sepals, these similar or not, the outer two often similar and differing from the inner two with the middle sepal somewhat intermediate in form, inner sepals commonly with scarious margins; corolla very varied in colour and form but usually conspicuous and often open for a short time (morning or night only), commonly pink, less commonly blue, red, cream or white, commonly funnel-shaped and gradually widened with a broad spreading unlobed (sometimes weakly lobed) limb, less commonly campanulate, or crateriform with a cylindrical tube, more rarely suburceolate with the limb reduced to five teeth; stamens 5 unequal, two usually distinctly longer than the other three, inserted near the base of the tube, usually included, sometimes equal, exserted; filaments usually hairy at base, glabrous above, anthers linear-oblong, pollen globose, echinulate; ovary bilocular (trilocular in a few species), style 1, stigma globose, sometimes clearly bi- or trilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule, usually glabrous, 1 – 6-seeded but mostly 4-seeded, the style persistent or not on the ripening capsule; seeds very varied in indumentum, glabrous, minutely puberulent or tomentellous or conspicuously pilose or lanate, the longer hairs often restricted to the angles of the seeds.

[FTEA]

Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Herbaceous twiner
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary, peduncled, few- to several-flowered monochasial cymes, often secund
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, subequal, with awn-like appendages
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla narrowly tubular at the base, tubular or urceolate above, slightly curved, with 5-toothed mouth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens and style long-exserted; pollen spinulose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary glabrous, 4-locular, each loculus with one ovule; style 1, filiform; stigma bicapitate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 4-locular, 4-valved, with up to 4 glabrous seeds
Note
This monotypic genus has usually been considered a part of Ipomoea sect. Quamoclit, but the curved corolla and long-exserted genitalia are very distinctive.

[FZ]

Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, subequal, herbaceous, distinctly aristate, not enlarged in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla narrowly tubular at the base, tubular or urceolate above, slightly curved, with a slightly constricted 5-toothed mouth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens long-exserted; filaments inserted at the apex of the narrow basal tubular part of the corolla; pollen globular, spinulose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk annular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary glabrous, 4-locular, each loculus with one ovule; style 1, long-exserted, filiform; stigma bicapitate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 4-locular, 4-valved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 4 or less, glabrous.
Morphology General Habit
Herbaceous twiner.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petioled, entire or mostly palmately lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary, peduncled few to several-flowered monochasial cymes, often secund, pedicels short; bracts minute.

[FZ]

Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

Morphology General Habit
A scarcely natural genus, similar to Ipomoea but differing in having an indehiscent ovoid-oblong or ellipsoid fruit, mostly with a single puberulous seed.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Some 15 species in Africa, New Caledonia and tropical America.
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or ± woody climbers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary cymes or solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals equal or unequal, scarious and ± spreading in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla funnel- or salver-shaped
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-celled with 4 ovules; style simple; stigmas 2, globose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit indehiscent, with a leathery or almost woody wall, usually 1-seeded, subtended by the enlarged calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed ovoid or ellipsoid.

[FTEA]

Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Similar in habit and most characters to Ipomoea but differing in having an indehiscent ovoid-oblong or ellipsoid fruit, mostly with a single puberulous seed.

Doubtfully present in:

Maine, New Hampshire

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wyoming, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Austria, Belgium, Bismarck Archipelago, British Columbia, California, Central European Rus, China North-Central, France, Inner Mongolia, Juan Fernández Is., Kirgizstan, Korea, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Zealand South, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Oman, Oregon, Primorye, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, St.Helena, Transcaucasus, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Washington, Wisconsin, Yugoslavia

Ipomoea L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Cruse, A.W. [396], Zambia 11182.000
Fanshawe, D.B. [5680] 1108.000
Harley, R.M. [25707], Brazil K000944618
Harley, R.M. [18060], Brazil K000944771
Harley, R.M. [17139], Brazil K000944770
Watermeyer [127], Tanzania 24509.000
Meikle [589], Nigeria 54768.000
Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K000944768
Agra, M.F. [647], Brazil K000944616
Saar, E. [5254], Brazil K000944614
Miers, J. [3692], Brazil K000944765
Basedow, H. [177], Australia K000357299
Tschá, M.C. [323], Brazil K000944611
Figueirêdo, L.S. [409], Brazil K000944617
Rosa, N.A. [4047], Brazil K000944609
Boog [7] K000944610
Glaziou, A. [13029], Brazil K000944612
Glaziou, A. [8819], Brazil K000944613
Gardner [6072], Brazil K000944767
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000944769
Martius [957], Brazil K000944766
Glaziou [9977], Brazil K000944764

First published in Sp. Pl.: 159 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Wood, J.R.I., Muñoz-Rodríguez P., Williams, B.R.M., Scotland, R.W. (2020). A foundation monograph of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the New World PhytoKeys 143: 1-823.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Carine, M.A., Harris, D., Wilkin, P., Williams, B. & Scotland, R.W. (2015). Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia Kew Bulletin 70(31): 1-124.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
  • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Bianchini, R.S., Ferreira, P.P.A. in Forzza, R.C. et al. (2010). Convolvulaceae Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.
  • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Thulin, M. et al. in Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Convolvulaceae Flora of Somalia 3: 221-258. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & M. Morris in Miller, A.G. & M. Morris (2004). Ethnofl. Soqotra Archipel. Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae Ethnoflora of the Soqotra Archipelago: 516-524. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
  • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
  • Austin, D.F. in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (1998). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 4: 377-424. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Green, P.S. (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Australia 49: 305-310. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Barker, R.M. & Telford, I.R.H. (1993). Fl. Australia Oceanic Islds. Convolvs Flora of Australia 50: 342-353. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Yamazaki, T. (1993). Fl. Japan Convolvulaceae Flora of Japan IIIa: 195-205. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Dempster, L. T. in Hickman, J. C. (ed.) (1993). Convolvulaceae The Jepson Manual, higher plants of Cilfornia: 516-522. Univ. California Press.
  • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi) Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
  • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Austin, D. F. (1982). Flora of Ecuador 15: 3-99. Botanical Institute, University of Göteborg, Riksmuseum, Stockholm.
  • Allan, H.H. (1982). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae-indigenous Flora of New Zealand 1: 835-841+1034. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Austin, D.F. & Cavalcante, P.B. (1982). Convolvuláceas da Amazônia Publicações Avulsas do Museo Goeldi 36: 1-134.
  • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental.
  • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
  • Parris, B.S. & R. Brummitt in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Convolvulaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 197-222. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
  • Austin, D.F. (1975). Convolvulaceae Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 62: 157-224.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1975). Fl. Marquesas Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 23: 27-34.
  • Grigor'ev, Y.S. (1974). Convolvulaceae Flora of the USSR 19: 3-30. Science Publishers, Inc.
  • Adams, C.D. in Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 601-614. University of the West Indies, Mona.
  • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
  • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
  • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
  • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Convolvuloideas de Uruguay Lilloa 29: 349-376. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
  • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Las especies americanas de Ipomoea L. sect. Quamoclit (Moench) Griseb. Lilloa 29: 19-86. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1958). Some notes on tropical African Convolvulaceae Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 13: 321-329.
  • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
  • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Hill, A.W. & Sandwith, N. in Williams, R.O. (1953). Fl. Trinidad & Tobago Convolvs. Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(4): 210-240. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
  • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313.
  • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
  • Meisner, C.F. in Martius, C.F.P.von & auct. suc. (eds.) (1869). Convolvulaceae Flora Brasiliensis 7: 199-370.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Fl. Males., ser. 1, 4: 458 (1953)
  • van Ooststr. in Blumea 3: 481 (1940)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 128
  • Sp. Pl. 159 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 76 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.: 159 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5 : 76 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl. : 159 (1753)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/