1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Tricalysia A.Rich. ex DC.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean.

    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D.M.Bridson & B.Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:3. 2003

    Habit
    Mostly shrubs, less often small trees or large dominant trees (a few species, not in the Flora); rarely rhizomatous undershrubs.
    Leaves
    Leaves evergreen or deciduous, sometimes dimorphic (blades at start of new season’s growth, smaller and broader than main leaves, TAB. 92/A), subsessile to petiolate, often with domatia, never with bacterial nodules; stipules sheathing, each limb awned.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary and sessile, subsessile or infrequently shortly pedunculate, 1–several-flowered, usually compact; bract and bracteoles similar, opposite pairs fused to form cup-like structures (cupules), with leaf-derived and stipule-derived lobes (the latter occasionally subfoliaceous) apparent (TAB. 92/B2), or more often with (0 or 2)4 shorter awns and somewhat resembling the calyx limb (TAB. 92/B3–B5), arranged in a series, subtending the usually condensed inflorescence branches with the uppermost cupule subtending and frequently surrounding the calyx tube (Tab. 92/B6) or, sometimes chaffy in texture, entire in young bud then irregularly splitting (TAB. 92/B1), less often (not in Flora Zambesiaca area), alternate and not fused; bractlets (bracteoles fide Robbrecht) free in pedicellate species, either opposite or alternate (TAB. 92/B1).
    Flowers
    Flowers (4)5–9(12)-merous, mostly sweet-scented, sessile or less often pedicellate, hermaphrodite (with the exception of a unisexual group of Madagascan species), occasionally dimorphic (sect. Ephedranthera, TAB. 92/D1&D2).
    Calyx
    Calyx very variable, either with a short limb-tube and distinct lobes (subgen. Empogona, TAB. 92/C1–C3) or with well developed, truncate or dentate limb-tube (subgen. Tricalysia, TAB. 92/C4–C9).
    Corolla
    Corolla mostly white, sometimes greenish, cream-coloured or rose-coloured, salver-shaped; lobes spreading or reflexed, contorted to the left.
    Stamens
    Stamens attached to the throat, mostly with distinct filaments; anthers medifixed, exserted, rarely (sect. Ephedranthera) sessile and half-included to almost completely included, with or without an inconspicuous or markedly conspicuous apical appendage formed by an extension of the connective.
    Disc
    Disk annular.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular, with 1–many ovules embedded in a placenta attached to the septum; style 2-lobed, exserted, lying between the anthers or just overtopping them, but deeply included in the short-styled form of sect. Ephedranthera (TAB. 92/D2).
    Fruits
    Fruits ± drupe-like, mostly less than 1 cm in diameter, rarely somewhat larger and with a ± dry, sclerified indehiscent wall (not in Flora Zambesiaca area), mostly red, rarely orange, or in subgen. Empogona first white then turning blackish; calyx limb mostly persistent; endocarp papery.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–many per locule (rarely only 1 per fruit by abortion of the second chamber); seed coat chestnut-brown, colliculate, striate or smooth; hilum long, linear, often curved or with a small excavation; endosperm horny in texture; embryo straight, attaining at most half the height of the seed; cotyledons ± equalling the basally oriented radicle.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Mostly shrubs, less often small trees or (only a few species, not in the Flora area) large dominant trees; rarely (± 6 species) rhizomatous undershrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, often with domatia, never with bacterial nodules; stipules sheathing, crowned by two awns
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary and opposite, sessile to subsessile, rarely 1-, mostly many-flowered and strongly contracted
    Flowers
    Flowers (4–)5–9(–12)-merous, mostly sweetly scented, sessile or rarely pedicellate, hermaphrodite (with the exception of a group of Madagascan species which is unisexual), occasionally dimorphic (sect. Ephedranthera)
    Bracts
    Bracts (primary and secondary etc.) and bracteoles similar and arranged in a series or less often dissimilar, paired, fused, cupular and somewhat resembling the calyx-limb or less often dissimilar to calyx-limb, dentate, awned or occasionally with leafy appendages, subtending the usually condensed inflorescence branches and with 1 (–3 in simple inflorescences) cup subtending and frequently surrounding each calyx-tube; in some pedicellate species bracteoles free, either opposite or alternate
    Calyx
    Calyx very variable, either with short limb-tube and distinct lobes (subgen. Empogona) or with well-developed, truncate or dentate limb-tube
    Corolla
    Corolla mostly white, sometimes greenish, cream or rose, salver-shaped; lobes spreading or reflexed, contorted to the left
    Stamens
    Stamens attached to the throat, mostly with distinct filaments; anthers medifixed, exserted, rarely (sect. Ephedranthera) sessile and half-included to almost completely included, with or without an inconspicuous or markedly conspicuous apical appendage formed by an extension of the connective
    Disc
    Disc annular
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular, with 1–many ovules embedded in a placenta attached to the septum; style 2-lobed, exserted, lying between the anthers or just overtopping them, but deeply included in the short-styled form of sect. Ephedranthera
    Fruits
    Fruits ± drupaceous, mostly less than 1 cm. in diameter, rarely (sect. Probletostemon and T. allocalyx) somewhat larger and with ± dry, sclerified indehiscent wall, mostly red, rarely orange, in subgen. Empogona first white then turning blackish; calyx mostly persistent; endocarp papery
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–many per locule (rarely only 1 per fruit by abortion of the second chamber); seed-coat chestnut-brown, colliculate, striate or smooth; hilum long, linear, often curved; endosperm horny; embryo straight, attaining at most 1/2 the height of the seed; cotyledons ± equalling the basally oriented radicle.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Tricalysia A.Rich. ex DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1998 Mbani, J. M. [504], Cameroon K000011826
    Thomas, D.W., Cameroon 41179.000
    Cheek, M. [7882], Cameroon 61715.000
    Davis, A.P. [2907], Tanzania 72943.000
    Davis, A.P. [2905], Tanzania 72957.000
    Mvungi, E.F. [23], Tanzania 70321.000
    Maurin, O. [4], Cameroon 70366.000
    Harris, T. [21], Mozambique K000545025
    Patel, H. [7217], Mozambique K000545178

    First published in Prodr. 4: 445 (Sept. 1830)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 3: 117.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in F.T.E.A., Rubiaceae: 540–566 (1988).
    • Robbrecht in Bull. Jard. Bot. Belg. 57: 39–208 (1987)
    • Robbrecht in Bull. Jard. Bot. Belg. 53: 299–320 (1983)
    • Robbrecht in Bull. Jard. Bot. Belg. 52: 311–339 (1982)
    • Robbrecht in Bull. Jard. Bot. Belg. 49: 239–360 (1979)
    • A. Richard, Mém. Fam. Rub.: 144 (Dec. 1830).
    • Prodr. 4: 445 (Sept. 1830).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Robbrecht in B.J.B.B. 57: 39–208 (1987)
    • Robbrecht in B.J.B.B. 53: 299–320 (1983)
    • Robbrecht in B.J.B.B. 52: 311–339 (1982)
    • Robbrecht in B.J.B.B. 49: 239–360 (1979)
    • A. Rich., Mém. Fam. Rub.: 144 (Dec. 1830)
    • Prodr. 4: 445 (Sept. 1830)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0