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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

[FZ]

Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:1. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs or small subshrubs, with glabrous, pubescent, hispid or scabrid very often 4-angled prostrate to erect stems.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or falsely whorled, sessile or petiolate, the petioles often united with the stipule sheath, which is mostly divided into 1-many ± filiform fimbriae.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers mostly small or occasionally medium-sized, hermaphrodite, not heterostylous (except in sect. Galianthe (Griseb.) K. Schum. which does not occur in Africa), sessile, mostly in axillary ± globose often very many-flowered clusters or less often in terminal capitula, supported by 1 -2(more) pairs of leaves forming bracts, or 1-few in the axils (some extra-African species have extensive terminal inflorescences); sometimes the axillary nodal clusters run together to form a spike-like inflorescence the leaf pairs forming scattered or congested bracts; the flowers in the globose clusters are frequently intermixed with numerous ± scarious filiform bracteoles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tube obovoid, turbinate or obconic; lobes 2–4(8), mostly triangular, oblong or lanceolate, often ± persistent, sometimes with intermediate denticles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla funnel-shaped or salver-shaped, the tube sometimes very slender, sometimes with a ring of hairs inside towards base; throat glabrous to hairy; lobes (3)4, mostly spreading, valvate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, the filaments inserted in the tube or at the throat, the linear to oblong anthers included or mostly exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2-locular, the amphitropous ovules solitary in each locule, attached to the middle of the septum; style filiform, mostly exserted; stigma capitellate or with 2 short lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit mostly a 2-valved capsule dehiscing from the apex downwards with the septum disappearing (in sect. Borreria (G.F.W. Mey.) Verdc.) or sometimes 2-coccous, one dehiscent but the other remaining ± closed (sect. Spermacoce) or in a few species (sect Arbulocarpus (Tennant) Verdc.) the capsule splitting from the base upwards but valves remaining attached by the calyx limb which is not split across, the whole falling off like a lid, a persistent septum being left behind.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds oblong, ellipsoid or ovoid, usually shining brown with a thin often clearly reticulate testa, ventrally grooved; albumen horny or fleshy.

[FTEA]

Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs or small subshrubs, with glabrous, pubescent, hispid or scabrid very often 4-angled prostrate to erect stems
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or falsely whorled, sessile or petiolate, the petioles often united with the stipule-sheath, which is mostly divided into 1-many ± filiform fimbriae
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers mostly small or occasionally medium-sized, hermaphrodite, not heterostylous (except in sect. Galianthe (Griseb.) K. Schum. which does not occur in Africa), sessile, mostly in axillary ± globose often very many-flowered clusters or less often in terminal capitula, supported by 1–2(-more) pairs of leaves forming bracts, or 1-few in the axils (some extra-African species have extensive terminal inflorescences); sometimes the axillary nodal clusters run together to form a spike-like inflorescence the leaf pairs forming scattered or congested bracts; the flowers in the globose clusters are frequently intermixed with numerous ± scarious filiform bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-tube obovoid, turbinate or obconic; lobes 2–4(–8), mostly triangular, oblong or lanceolate, often ± persistent, sometimes with intermediate denticles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla funnel-shaped or salver-shaped, the tube sometimes very slender; throat glabrous to hairy; lobes (3–)4, mostly spreading, valvate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, the filaments inserted in the tube or at the throat, the linear to oblong anthers included or mostly exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2-locular, the amphitropous ovules solitary in each locule, attached to the middle of the septum; style filiform, mostly exserted; stigma capitellate or with 2 short lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit mostly a 2-valved capsule dehiscing from the apex downwards with the septum disappearing (in sect. Borreria (G. F. W. Mey.) Verdc.) or sometimes 2-coccous, one dehiscent but the other remaining ± closed (sect. Spermacoce) or in a few species (sect. Arbulocarpus (Tennant) Verdc.) the capsule splitting from the base upwards but valves remaining attached by the calyx-limb which is not split across, the whole falling off like a lid, a persistent septum being left behind
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds oblong, ellipsoid or ovoid, usually shining brown with a thin often clearly reticulate testa, ventrally grooved; albumen horny or fleshy.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Herbs, subshrubs or dwarf shrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, sessile or petiolate; stipules united to petioles, usually with fimbriate margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers not heterostylous (in Africa), sessile and mostly in axillary many-flowered clusters, but sometimes solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes usually 2–4
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla funnel-shaped or salver-shaped, the tube sometimes very slender; lobes mostly 4, valvate in bud
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens mostly exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-celled, with 1 ovule attached near middle in each cell; style mostly exserted, stigma 2-lobed or capitate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit mostly a 2-valved capsule.
Distribution
Genus of some 290 species in the tropics and subtropics of all parts of the world.

Native to:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Ascension, Cabinda, Cambodia, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., Gilbert Is., Hawaii, Laos, Line Is., Marianas, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Society Is., Solomon Is., Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Wallis-Futuna Is.

Spermacoce L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Feb 1, 2014 Harley, R.M. [11271], Brazil K001068310
Feb 1, 2014 Pirani, J.R. [4035], Brazil K001068358
Feb 1, 2014 Eiten, G. [3760], Brazil K001068313
Feb 1, 2014 Gifford, D.R. [63], Brazil K001068311
Feb 1, 2014 Prance, G.T. [P 24849], Brazil K001068352
Feb 1, 2014 Zappi, D.C. [377], Brazil K001068354
Feb 1, 2014 Skorupa, L.A. [313], Brazil K001068353
Feb 1, 2014 Fernandes, H.Q.B. [1925], Brazil K001068356
Feb 1, 2004 Etuge, M. [4735], Cameroon K000746450
Jan 1, 1982 Philcox, D. [4091], Brazil K001068312
Hunt, D.R. [6258], Brazil K001068357
Bidgood, S. [5488], Tanzania K000190718
Martinelli, G. [9024], Brazil K001068347
Queiroz, L.P. [9664], Brazil K001068339
Davis, A.P. [2510], Madagascar 61996.000
Eiten, G. [8363], Brazil K001068348
Souza, E.B. [877], Brazil K001068344
Dubs, B. [2075], Brazil K001068351
Romero, R. [3071], Brazil K001068350
Plowman, T.C. [12383], Brazil K001068342
Prance, G.T. [18285], Brazil K001068334
Poiteau, P.A. [s.n.], French Guiana K001068345
Hatschbach, G.G. [79850], Brazil K001068340
Fernandes, H.Q.B. [2798], Brazil K001068315
Zartman, C.E. [5949], Brazil K001068341
Zartman, C.E. [5948], Brazil K001068314
Vervloet, R.R. [1508], Brazil K001068343
Vervloet, R.R. [3459], Brazil K001068355
Tweedie, E.M. [514], Kenya Borreria 8534.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [8821], Tanzania Borreria 31220.000
Loiola, I. [846], Brazil Borreria K001212263

First published in Sp. Pl.: 102 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Delprete, P.G. (2010). Rubiaceae Flora dos estados de Goiás e Tocantins 40: 1-1610. Universidade Federal de Goiás.
  • Harwood, R. & Dessein, S. (2005). Australian Spermacoce (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae). I. Northern Territory Australian Systematic Botany 18: 297-365.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 44 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.: 102 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 44 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 102 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0