1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Rhynchosia Lour.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Southern America, Northern America, Australasia and Asia-Temperate..

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Climbing prostrate or sometimes erect herbs or subshrubs, rarely pyrophytic.
    Leaves
    Leaves 1-foliolate or pinnately, rarely subdigitately, 3-foliolate (bipinnate in one South African species); leaflets usually with very conspicuous resinous gland dots beneath; stipules present; stipels very small.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemose or paniculate, the flowers rarely solitary; bracts present, often well developed; bracteoles absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed; lobes unequal, the upper pair ± joined.
    Corolla
    Corolla small or medium sized, frequently yellow lined with brownish-purple; standard with small auricles, but without or with only traces of appendages or calli, glabrous or hairy.
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers uniform.
    Pistil
    Ovary (1)2-ovuled, often velvety; style mostly long, tenuous and mostly hairy on the lower part, incurved, glabrous, somewhat flattened and usually stiffened above; stigma small, terminal.
    Fruits
    Pods almost circular to narrowly oblong, often falcate, compressed, frequently glandular and velvety.
    Seeds
    Seeds reddish-brown, black or sometimes bright blue, compressed-globose or subreniform; hilum rounded to elongate, lateral, short, or at least never extending for more than a quarter of the periphery; rim aril obsolete to well developed, but mostly absent in African species, (except in a few cases, as in section Nomismia for example).
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Vernacular
    rosary bean
    Habit
    Herbs, vines or subshrubs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry forest, forest margins, woodland, thicket, wooded grassland, shrubland and grassland, often in open rocky areas or along streams and in disturbed areas; many species are pyrophytes
    Distribution
    pantropical (c. 140 spp. in Africa-Madagascar; c. 55 endemic spp. in tropical and subtropical America [c. 28 spp. in N and C America, 20 in S America and 6 widespread between both] and c. 30-35 spp. in warm temperate to tropical Asia to N Australia [2 endemic spp.])
    Note
    Placed in subtribe Cajaninae, allied to Eriosema; leaves of R. ferulifolia Benth. ex Harv. from the Cape region of South Africa are unusual in being apparently bipinnate, or once pinnate with 5-9 leaflets compared to the pinnately 3-foliolate condition in the rest of the genus

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Climbing, prostrate or sometimes erect herbs or subshrubs, rarely pyrophytic
    Leaves
    Leaves 1-foliolate or pinnately, rarely subdigitately, 3-foliolate, bipinnate in one South African species; leaflets with usually very conspicuous resinous gland-dots beneath; stipules present; stipels very small
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemose or paniculate, the flowers rarely solitary; bracts present, often well developed; bracteoles absent
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed; lobes unequal, the upper pair ± joined
    Corolla
    Corolla small or medium-sized, frequently yellow lined with brownish-purple; standard with small auricles, but without or with only traces of appendages or calli, glabrous or hairy
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers uniform
    Pistil
    Ovary (1–)2-ovuled, often velvety; style mostly long, tenuous and mostly hairy beneath, incurved, glabrous, somewhat flattened and usually stiffened above; stigma small, terminal
    Fruits
    Pods almost circular to narrowly oblong, compressed, often falcate, frequently glandular and velvety
    Seeds
    Seeds reddish-brown, black or sometimes bright blue, compressed-globose or subreniform; hilum rounded to elongate, lateral, short, or at least never extending more than a quarter of the periphery; rim-aril obsolete to well developed but mostly absent in African species, save for a few, e.g. in sect. Nomismia.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    This species group and their relationship to Rhynchosia are in need of revision; the genus has been included in Rhynchosia in South African literature, e.g., Germishuizen (2000)
    Habit
    Subshrubs or herbs
    Ecology
    Mediterranean sclerophyllous shrubland (fynbos) on sandstone slopes
    Distribution
    South Africa (S parts of W Cape)
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as pasture plants and several species, commonly called rosary bean , have attractive red, blue, black, mottled or bicoloured seeds used for necklaces etc.; seeds also used as weights or as narcotics; plants also famine foods (Huxham et al., 1998)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Canary Is., Fiji, New Caledonia, Niue, Réunion, Seychelles

    Rhynchosia Lour. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Rico, L. [1988], Dominican Republic K000478755

    First published in Fl. Cochinch.: 460 (1790)

    Accepted by

    • Moteetee, A.H., Boatwright, J.S. & Jaca, T.P. (2014). A review of Rhynchosia section Polytropia (Phaseoleae, Fabaceae) and a new species from the Western Cape province, South Africa Systematic Botany 39: 1127-1131.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 216.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. Pl. 1: 423 (1964)*.
    • Fl. Cochinch.: 460 (1790) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hutch., G.F.P. 1: 423 (1964), nom. conserv.
    • Fl. Cochinch.: 460 (1790)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/