1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Millettia Wight & Arn.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or lianes, or rarely semi-herbaceous plants with a woody rootstock
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, the leaflets entire, usually opposite; stipellae usually present; a pulvinus present at the base of the rhachis
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence paniculate, but often pseudoracemose by the contraction of the floriferous branches to mere knobs
    Calyx
    Calyx almost truncate or divided for up to two-thirds of its length, the upper pair of teeth united for most of their length
    Corolla
    Corolla rarely under 1 cm. long, white, pink, blue or violet, not speckled, silky or glabrous outside; keel-petals lightly united, somewhat pouched but not spurred, their claws and the usually rather longer claws of the wings often ± attached near the base to the filament-sheath
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen usually free in the young bud and remaining so at its base in the mature flower, but usually becoming adherent to its neighbours above; 5 of the 9 united stamens rather longer than the others; anthers all alike, dorsifixed below the middle; filaments not widened at the tip
    Disc
    Disc between stamens and ovary tubular, annular or lobed or flat and undeveloped
    Pistil
    Ovary pubescent, sessile or shortly stipitate, with (2–)3–ll ovules; style usually pubescent near the base, glabrous above, ± circular in cross-section, straight or incurved at the tip; stigma small, terminal, discoid or capitate
    Fruits
    Pod dehiscent, usually flat, rarely subcylindrical, 2- or more seeded; funicle often with a pulpy swelling at the proximal side (towards the pedicel)
    Seeds
    Seeds usually well separated from one another, sometimes “longitudinal” (long axis parallel to that of pod), more often “transverse” or “obliquely transverse”, usually rather flat, usually having around the hilum a short ring-like white or yellow aril prolonged at one side into a strap-shaped process clasping the funicle.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae by B. Verdcourt*

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or lianes, or rarely semi-herbaceous plants with a woody rootstock. Trees, shrubs or lianes, or rarely semi-herbaceous plants with a woody rootstock.
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, the leaflets entire, usually opposite; stipels usually present but absent in 2 cultivated species in the Flora area; a pulvinus present at the base of the peduncle. Leaves imparipinnate, the leaflets entire, usually opposite; stipels usually present but absent in 2 cultivated species in the Flora area; a pulvinus present at the base of the peduncle.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence paniculate, but often pseudoracemose by the contraction of the floriferous branches to mere knobs. Inflorescence paniculate, but often pseudoracemose by the contraction of the floriferous branches to mere knobs.
    Calyx
    Calyx almost truncate or divided for up to ? of its length, the upper pair of teeth united for most of their length. Calyx almost truncate or divided for up to ⅔ of its length, the upper pair of teeth united for most of their length.
    Corolla
    Corolla rarely under 1 cm long, white, pink, blue or violet, not speckled, silky or glabrous outside; keel petals lightly united, somewhat pouched but not spurred, their claws and the usually rather longer claws of the wings often ± attached near the base to the filament sheath. Corolla rarely under 1 cm long, white, pink, blue or violet, not speckled, silky or glabrous outside; keel petals lightly united, somewhat pouched but not spurred, their claws and the usually rather longer claws of the wings often ± attached near the base to the filament sheath.
    Stamens
    Upper stamen usually free in the young bud and remaining so at its base in the mature flower, but usually becoming adherent to its neighbours above; 5 of the 9 united stamens rather longer than the others; anthers uniform, dorsifixed below the middle; filaments not widened at the tip. Upper stamen usually free in the young bud and remaining so at its base in the mature flower, but usually becoming adherent to its neighbours above; 5 of the 9 united stamens rather longer than the others; anthers uniform, dorsifixed below the middle; filaments not widened at the tip.
    Disc
    Disk between stamens and ovary tubular, annular or lobed or flat and undeveloped. Disk between stamens and ovary tubular, annular or lobed or flat and undeveloped.
    Ovary
    Ovary pubescent, sessile or shortly stipitate, with (2)3–11 ovules; style usually pubescent near the base, glabrous above, ± circular in cross-section, straight or incurved at the tip; stigma small, terminal, discoid or capitate.
    Pistil
    Ovary pubescent, sessile or shortly stipitate, with (2)3–11 ovules; style usually pubescent near the base, glabrous above, ± circular in cross-section, straight or incurved at the tip; stigma small, terminal, discoid or capitate.
    Fruits
    Pod dehiscent, usually flat, rarely subcylindrical, 2- or more seeded; funicle often with a pulpy swelling at the proximal side (towards the pedicel). Pod dehiscent, usually flat, rarely subcylindrical, 2- or more seeded; funicle often with a pulpy swelling at the proximal side (towards the pedicel).
    Seeds
    Seeds usually well separated from one another, sometimes “longitudinal” (long axis parallel to that of pod), more often “transverse” or “obliquely transverse”, usually rather flat, usually having around the hilum a short ring-like white or yellow aril prolonged at one side into a strap-shaped process clasping the funicle. Seeds usually well separated from one another, sometimes “longitudinal” (long axis parallel to that of pod), more often “transverse” or “obliquely transverse”, usually rather flat, usually having around the hilum a short ring-like white or yellow aril prolonged at one side into a strap-shaped process clasping the funicle.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Relationships among genera of Millettieae have been notoriously difficult to unravel based on traditional morphological evidence and this is exemplified by the alphabetical arrangement of genera in the tribal treatments of Geesink (1981; 1984) and Polhill (1994). Geesink (1981) recognised 44 genera and c. 870 species in tribe Millettieae (as ‘Tephrosieae’) while 43 genera were accounted for in Geesink (1984) and Polhill (1994). The genera recognised, however, varied considerably with only 33 genera in common to both treatments of Geesink, while the list of Polhill (1994) combined elements of Geesink (1981, 1984) with new data accumulated since then. Tephrosia has traditionally comprised some 400 species but this is re-estimated at c. 350 species here.

    The traditional circumscription of the predominantly pantropical and subtropical tribe Millettieae is followed here (Fig. 45), with 45 genera and (904)–909–(914) species being recognised, (i.e. excluding the two genera and 11 species transferred to Brongniartieae, see Table 8), although the concept of what comprises Millettieae sens. strict. is changing rapidly based on evidence from molecular phylogenies. Sequence data for millettioid genera comes from the plastid rbcL gene (Doyle et al., 1997; 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu & Chang, 2003), phytochrome nucleotide genes (Lavin et al., 1998), the plastid trnK-matK region (Hu et al., 2000) and the nuclear ITS region (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2002). Molecular data, together with reinterpreted evidence based on chemistry (Evans et al., 1985) and wood anatomy (Gasson et al., 2004), have been the basis for recognising a number of informal suprageneric groupings and for transferring Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe to tribe Brongniartieae (Table 8; Fig. 45).

     The most far-reaching result of the above molecular analyses was that a substantial part of the traditionally circumscribed tribe Phaseoleae is more closely allied to the core-Millettieae than to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade (see page 393). Circumscription of a revised tribe Millettieae is not possible at present until genera are more comprehensively sampled; however, a Millettioid sens. strict. group might be expected to include some genera in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group, Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae, Ophrestiinae and in small part the Erythrininae, tribe Abreae and the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45). The basal millettioid and phaseoloid group comprises 17 genera (94 species) that may belong either in the Millettioids sens. strict. or Phaseoleae sens. lat., or to a clade sister to both these groups (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001). The core-Millettieae clade comprises c. 22 genera and c. 777 spp., with some additional generic segregates being necessary within the ‘canavanine group’ (Evans et al., 1985), to accommodate species of Millettia sens. lat. and Fordia sens. lat., which on the basis of molecular and chemical evidence are excluded from Millettia and Fordia sens. strict.

    Relationships between the major groups of genera centred on Lonchocarpus, Derris, Millettia and Tephrosia remain obscure, and still reflect a geographical bias in segregating them, i.e. distributions are limited largely to the New World in the Lonchocarpus group, and the Old World in the other groups. The suggestion that the Andean South American genus Apurimacia might be sister to the largely Old World Tephrosia rather than to Lonchocarpus (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001) is possibly indicative of other Old World–New World sister groups yet to be found. Further molecular evidence will probably result in an overall reduction in the number of genera recognised, particularly in the Tephrosia and Lonchocarpus groups where various small or monotypic ‘one-organ’ genera may be better placed within larger genera. Ptycholobium, Requienia and Paratephrosia, for example, are difficult to distinguish from Tephrosia, but for the emphasis traditionally placed on their atypical pods.

    This genus is in need of major revision since recent molecular evidence (Hu et al., 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu et al., 2002) has shown Millettia to be polyphyletic; estimates of the number of species vary from 90-200 and the total given above is based on a review of current literature and herbarium collections
    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or lianas
    Ecology
    Tropical rain forest and seasonally dry lowland to upland forest and forest margins, woodland, thicket and wooded grassland, and secondary vegetation types
    Distribution
    c. 90-100 spp. in Africa and Madagascar (in Africa c. 65 spp. occur in WC regions; 14 spp. Zanzibar-Inhambane; 6 spp. Zambezian; c. 4 spp. Somalia-Masai; c. 2 spp. Sudanian; c. 1 sp. Afromontane; 8 spp. endemic to Madagascar); to China, the Indian subcontinent, Indo-China and Malesia
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as fish poisons, insecticides, timber (e.g., M. laurentii De Wild. [wenge] ; M. stuhlmannii Taub. [panga panga, mpande] , for flooring, furniture, cabinet work, construction, veneers, joinery and agricultural implements); as nitrogen fixers in agroforestry (soil rehabilitation), fuelwood, ornamentals and for medicine

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Egypt, Mauritius, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion

    Millettia Wight & Arn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [9880], Cameroon K000338618
    Jan 1, 1995 Baker, W.J. [356], Cameroon K000339513
    Jan 1, 1995 Baker, W.J. [356], Cameroon K000437112
    Aug 1, 1990 Thomas, D.W. [2543], Cameroon K000087153
    Apr 1, 1976 Letouzey, R. [14668], Cameroon K000087157
    Maitland, T.D. [770], Cameroon K000087230
    Maitland, T.D. [904], Cameroon K000087231
    Thomas, D.W. [3225], Cameroon K000086930
    Thomas, D.W. [2333], Cameroon K000087229
    Harris, D.J. [2434], Central African Republic 60046.000
    Harris, D.J. [2607], Central African Republic 60047.000
    Harris, D.J. [2416], Central African Republic 60068.000
    Harris, D.J. [2472], Cameroon 62980.000
    Letouzey, R. [14839], Cameroon K000086928
    Nemba, J. [230], Cameroon K000086931
    Nemba, J. [230], Cameroon K000086932
    Kerr, A.F.G. [5468], Thailand K000848777
    Kerr, A.F.G. [5468], Thailand K000848776

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient.: 263 (1834)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Dunn in J. Linn. Soc. 41: 123 (1912).
    • —F.T.A. 2: 126
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gillett in Kew Bull. 15: 19–40 (1961).
    • —Gillett in Kew Bull. 15: 19–40 (1961).
    • Dunn in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 41: 123–243 (1912).
    • —Dunn in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 41: 123–243 (1912).
    • Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 263 (1834).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Dunn in J.L.S. 41:123–243 (1912)
    • Prodr. Fl. Pen. Ind. Or.: 263 (1834)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0