1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Alysicarpus Desv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The tribe Desmodieae as treated by Ohashi et al. (1981) comprised 27 genera and c. 540 species in three subtribes, the Bryinae, Desmodiinae and Lespedezinae. Molecular analyses by Bailey et al. (1997) and Doyle et al. (2000) show that Bryinae has affinities elsewhere; Lavin et al. (2001a) place it within the Pterocarpus clade of the Dalbergieae sens. lat. (see page 309). The Bryinae are therefore removed from the Desmodieae here, as are two genera formerly placed in subtribe Lespedezinae; Phylacium Benn. and Neocollettia Hemsl., which are moved to tribe Phaseoleae (see page 393) on morphological, palynological and molecular evidence (Doyle et al., 2000; Kajita et al., 2001). The two remaining subtribes of Desmodieae are recognised in this treatment as three groups, the Lespedeza, Phyllodium and Desmodium groups, based on results of an analysis of the chloroplast gene rbcL (Kajita et al., 2001). The Phyllodium and Desmodium groups correspond to subtribe Desmodiinae, and the Lespedeza group to subtribe Lespedezinae (with Campylotropis now comprising 37 instead of 65 species as in Ohashi et al., 1981).

    Desmodieae as circumscribed here comprises 30 genera and (524)–527–(530) species (Fig. 48). The tribe occurs in the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world, but extends into the cool temperate and sub-boreal regions of E Asia and N America (except W of the Rocky Mountains). At generic level subtribe Desmodiinae is most diverse in tropical S and SE Asia (Dy Phon et al., 1994), while temperate E Asia (Yang & Huang, 1995) and N America (Isely, 1998) are the centres of diversity of subtribe Lespedezinae. The tribe occurs widely from coastal to montane areas, but not at high altitudes. Species are most commonly shrubs or subshrubs, sometimes herbs, rarely trees and are usually erect and 3-foliolate.

    The Desmodieae have been considered similar to tribe Phaseoleae (Polhill, 1981a) and were recently shown to be a monophyletic lineage included within Phaseoleae sens. lat. (Fig. 47, page 394), closely related to subtribe Kennediinae (Doyle & Doyle, 1993, Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997) and possibly sister to Mucuna (Bailey et al., 1997; Doyle et al., 2000; Kajita et al., 2001).

    Habit
    Herbs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical woodland, wooded grassland and grassland, often in seasonally wet or open sandy and ruderal areas
    Distribution
    Africa (c. 10 spp., c. 5 endemic), India, Indo-China, Malesia, China, E Asia and Japan (c. 20 spp.) and Australia (8 spp., c. 2 endemic); endemic species are mostly in India (15 spp.)
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Annual or perennial, erect or decumbent herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves 1-foliolate, less often pinnately 3-foliolate; petiole channelled, winged; stipules scarious, acuminate, persistent, free or connate; stipels present, persistent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, axillary or leaf-opposed, falsely racemose or less often paniculate, the flowers mostly paired; bracts scarious, mostly at length falling; bracteoles absent
    Calyx
    Calyx scarious, persistent, appearing 4-lobed, the lobes subequal, striate, the upper lobe entire or slightly bifid, consisting of the 2 upper calyx teeth entirely or almost entirely connate
    Corolla
    Corolla small, mostly pinkish or purplish; standard ovate, rounded or obovate, produced into a claw, with 2 small longitudinal folds near the base inside; wings obliquely oblong, adhering to the keel, the petals of which are often appendaged
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free in the fully developed flower; free parts of the filaments alternately long and short; anthers uniform
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile or shortly stipitate, with several to many ovules; style filiform, incurved at the apex; stigma broadly capitate
    Fruits
    Pods linear-oblong, at least in outline, mostly several-jointed, the margins straight or the pod constricted between the segments, which are indehiscent, compressed, subcylindrical or rounded, mostly with a raised reticulation of ridges
    Seeds
    Seeds subglobose; hilum minute, without a rim-aril.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:6. 2000

    Habit
    Annual or perennial, erect or decumbent herbs.
    Leaves
    Leaves 1-foliolate, less often pinnately 3-foliolate; petiole channelled, winged; stipules scarious, acuminate, persistent, free or connate; stipels present, persistent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, axillary or leaf-opposed, falsely racemose or less often paniculate, the flowers mostly paired; bracts scarious, at length falling; bracteoles absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx scarious, persistent, appearing 4-lobed, the lobes subequal, striate, the upper lobe entire or slightly 2-fid, consisting of the 2 upper calyx teeth entirely or almost entirely connate.
    Corolla
    Corolla small, mostly pinkish or purplish; standard ovate, rounded or obovate, produced into a claw, with 2 small longitudinal folds near the base inside; wings obliquely oblong, adhering to the keel, the petals of which are often appendaged.
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free in the fully developed flower; free parts of the filaments alternately long and short; anthers uniform.
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile or shortly stipitate, with several to many ovules; style filiform, incurved at the apex; stigma broadly capitate.
    Fruits
    Fruit linear-oblong, at least in outline, mostly several-jointed, the margins straight or the fruit constricted between the segments (articles), which are indehiscent, compressed, subcylindrical or rounded, mostly with a raised reticulation of ridges.
    Seeds
    Seeds subglobose; hilum minute, without a rim-aril.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Herbs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical (often moist) hillside grassland
    Distribution
    India and Malesia (E Java)
    Note
    Sanjappa (1992; unpublished) maintains this group of species under Alysicarpus

    The tribe Desmodieae as treated by Ohashi et al. (1981) comprised 27 genera and c. 540 species in three subtribes, the Bryinae, Desmodiinae and Lespedezinae. Molecular analyses by Bailey et al. (1997) and Doyle et al. (2000) show that Bryinae has affinities elsewhere; Lavin et al. (2001a) place it within the Pterocarpus clade of the Dalbergieae sens. lat. (see page 309). The Bryinae are therefore removed from the Desmodieae here, as are two genera formerly placed in subtribe Lespedezinae; Phylacium Benn. and Neocollettia Hemsl., which are moved to tribe Phaseoleae (see page 393) on morphological, palynological and molecular evidence (Doyle et al., 2000; Kajita et al., 2001). The two remaining subtribes of Desmodieae are recognised in this treatment as three groups, the Lespedeza, Phyllodium and Desmodium groups, based on results of an analysis of the chloroplast gene rbcL (Kajita et al., 2001). The Phyllodium and Desmodium groups correspond to subtribe Desmodiinae, and the Lespedeza group to subtribe Lespedezinae (with Campylotropis now comprising 37 instead of 65 species as in Ohashi et al., 1981).

    Desmodieae as circumscribed here comprises 30 genera and (524)–527–(530) species (Fig. 48). The tribe occurs in the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world, but extends into the cool temperate and sub-boreal regions of E Asia and N America (except W of the Rocky Mountains). At generic level subtribe Desmodiinae is most diverse in tropical S and SE Asia (Dy Phon et al., 1994), while temperate E Asia (Yang & Huang, 1995) and N America (Isely, 1998) are the centres of diversity of subtribe Lespedezinae. The tribe occurs widely from coastal to montane areas, but not at high altitudes. Species are most commonly shrubs or subshrubs, sometimes herbs, rarely trees and are usually erect and 3-foliolate.

    The Desmodieae have been considered similar to tribe Phaseoleae (Polhill, 1981a) and were recently shown to be a monophyletic lineage included within Phaseoleae sens. lat. (Fig. 47, page 394), closely related to subtribe Kennediinae (Doyle & Doyle, 1993, Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997) and possibly sister to Mucuna (Bailey et al., 1997; Doyle et al., 2000; Kajita et al., 2001).

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used for livestock fodder, medicine, green manure and as a cover crop and famine food

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Georgia, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Southwest, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Panamá, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

    Alysicarpus Desv. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in J. Bot. Agric. 1: 120 (1813)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 169.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Verdcourt in Kirkia 9: 544 (1974).
    • Léonard in Bull. Jard. Bot. État 24: 84 (1954).
    • in J. Bot. Agric. 1: 120, pl. 4, fig. 8 (1813).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • J. Léon, in B.J.B.B.24:84(1954), nom. conserv.
    • Journ. de Bot., sér. 2,1:120 (1813)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0