1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Sida L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Southern America, Northern America, Australasia and Asia-Temperate..


    Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Annual or perennial herbs or suffrutices, erect or prostrate, glabrous or pubescent or pilose to densely tomentose or velutinous.
    Leaves usually undivided, serrate or crenate-serrate, occasionally 3-lobed, cuneate to cordate at the base, usually petiolate.
    Flowers small to medium-sized, usually cream or orange, long-pedicelled to subsessile or solitary, clustered or fasciculate in the leaf-axils or arranged in racemes (sometimes subcapitate or subumbellate) or spikes.
    Epicalyx absent.
    Calyx shallow-campanulate to saucer-shaped; lobes ovate or triangular, generally acute to acuminate.
    Petals not clawed.
    Staminal tube dilated at the base, divided at the apex into several to many free filaments; free parts of filaments terete.
    Ovary of 5 to many carpels, each with a single pendulous ovule; style terete or subclavate; stigmas capitate or truncate.
    Fruit of 5 to many mericarps ultimately separating from the torus, dehiscent at the apex (or rarely at the base) or indehiscent, smooth, transversely ribbed, glabrous or hairy, usually acute, beaked or awned.
    Seeds triangular; cotyledons folded; endosperm scanty or absent.

    Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs, erect or prostrate.
    Indumentum simple or mostly stellate
    Leaves simple (rarely not so outside Africa), lobed or not, mostly distinctly toothed, cuneate to cordate at base, usually petiolate; stipules filiform to lanceolate
    Flowers solitary or ± fasciculate in the leaf-axils, pedicellate or subsessile, often running into terminal clusters; pedicel often jointed
    Epicalyx absent
    Calyx cupular, often angular, 5-lobed
    Corolla mostly white to yellow or orange, mostly small
    Ovary of 5–15 carpels, each with a single pendulous ovule.
    Style branches as many as carpels
    Mericarps ± trigonous, ultimately separating from columella, dehiscent at apex or less often at base or indehiscent, smooth or variously sculptured, glabrous or pubescent, usually distinctly beaked, the beak often bearing 1–2 short to long awns
    Seeds triangular-reniform with little or no endosperm.
    A key to the sections of the genus is given by Fryxell in Sida 11: 63–64 (1985).



    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Howland-Baker Is., Illinois, India, Indiana, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, Azores, Canary Is., Central American Pac, Chile Central, Cook Is., Czechoslovakia, Easter Is., Hawaii, Iowa, Kansas, Korea, Madeira, Marianas, Masachusettes, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Norfolk Is., Oklahoma, Portugal, Primorye, Sinai, Solomon Is., St.Helena, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tubuai Is.

    Sida L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Stannard, B. [6314], Brazil K001217140
    Rico, L. [1180b], Bolivia K000295022
    Fevereiro, V.P.B. [M/II7], Brazil K001217158
    Santos, T.S. [2494], Brazil K001217185
    Santos, T.S. [2494], Brazil K001217186
    Coradin, L. [5759], Brazil K001217152
    Coradin, L. [6350], Brazil K001217153
    Silva, E.I. [87], Brazil K001217177
    Oliveira, M. [25], Brazil K001217132
    Oliveira, M. [120], Brazil K001217174
    Silva, L.F. [14], Brazil K001217129
    Gomes, A.P.S. [64], Brazil K001217134
    Gomes, A.P.S. [3], Brazil K001217131
    Gomes, A.P.S. [146], Brazil K001217175
    Campelo, M.J. [51], Brazil K001217169
    Irwin, H.S. [17581], Brazil K001217143
    Irwin, H.S. [20527], Brazil K001217156
    Marcon, A.B. [151], Brazil K001217176
    Sales, M.F. [564], Brazil K001217135
    Heringer, E.P. [16998], Brazil K001217178
    Heringer, E.P. [18346], Brazil K001217180
    Heringer, E.P. [14179], Brazil K001217183
    Heringer, E.P. [14228], Brazil K001217184
    Agra, M.F. [698], Brazil K001217159
    Andrade, K. [263], Brazil K001217172
    Eiten, G. [1711], Brazil K001217160
    Hora, M.J. [107], Brazil K001217171
    Pickersgill, B. [72-268], Brazil K001217136
    Pickersgill, B. [Ru/72/463], Brazil K001217137
    Pickersgill, B. [72-384], Brazil K001217138
    Pickersgill, B. [s.n.], Brazil K001217139
    Pickersgill, B. [72-397], Brazil K001217179
    Maas, P.J.M. [325], Brazil K001217157
    Mamede, M.C.H. [CFCR/6381], Brazil K001217181
    Mamede, M.C.H. [6381], Brazil K001217182
    Robert, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001217144
    Inácio, E. [8], Brazil K001217133
    Tschá, M. [191], Brazil K001217173
    Rambo, B. [45288], Brazil K001217154
    Rambo, B. [43285], Brazil K001217155
    Souza, S.A.M. [271], Brazil K001217141
    Eden, M.J. [EM/40], Brazil K001217163
    Eden, M.J. [51], Brazil K001217164
    Eden, M.J. [23], Brazil K001217165
    Eden, M.J. [EM/10], Brazil K001217166
    Eden, M.J. [EM/101], Brazil K001217167
    Eden, M.J. [65], Brazil K001217168
    Eden, M.J. [79], Brazil K001217161
    Eden, M.J. [EM/6], Brazil K001217162
    Zickel, C. [1], Brazil K001217130
    Gardner [2485], Brazil K001217150
    Gardner [2485], Brazil K001217151
    Weiss [s.n.], Brazil K001217146
    Mynssen, C.M. [1011], Brazil K001217170
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132300
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132301
    s.coll. [1320], Brazil K001217142
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001217148
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001217149
    Burchell [5171], Brazil K001217145
    Burchell [4440], Brazil K001217147

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 683 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Brandão, J.L. & al. (2017). Synopsis of Sida (Malvaceae, Malvoideae, Malveae) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil Phytotaxa 307: 205-227.
    • Fryxell, P.A. (2009). A new South American subsection of Sida sect. Nelavaga (Malvaceae) with two new species Lundiana 12: 15-27.
    • Cervantes Aceves, N. (1992). La Familia Malvaceae en el Estado de Jalisco, Mexico: 1-393. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara.


    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 1: 178.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 306 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 683 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Sp. Pl.: 683 (1753) & Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 306 (1754)


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