1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Amaranthus L.
      1. Amaranthus deflexus L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia to S. South America.

    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Perennial herb, prostrate to somewhat ascending, (8) 12–45 (80) cm.
    Stem
    Stems several, slender to rather stout, usually much-branched from the base upwards, more or less angular, green to reddish, glabrous below but usually increasingly furnished from well below the middle upwards with yellowish, flexuose or crisped multicellular hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves moderately to more or less densely furnished on the margins and inferior surface (especially of the principal veins) with similar multicellular hairs, long-petiolate (petioles 6–25 mm. long, but rarely, if ever, exceeding the lamina), lamina c. 1–4.5 × 0.5–2.5 cm, broadly ovate to lanceolate (most commonly rhomboid-ovate), subtruncate to shortly cuneate at the base, subacute to obtuse and sometimes shallowly retuse at the mucronulate apex.
    Flowers
    Flowers green, in slender and lax to stout and dense terminal and axillary spikes c. 2–10 cm long and 5–12 (20) mm. wide, the terminal spike not rarely with rather short, stout branches and the lowest inflorescences dense, subglobose clusters to c. 1 cm in diam.; male and female flowers intermixed, the males generally rather few.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, pale-membranous with a shortly excurrent greenish midrib, bracteoles usually about half the length of the perianth.
    Perianth
    Perianth segments 2–3, 1.5–2 mm., linear- to oblong-spathulate, obtuse to subacute, male and female similar or the male shorter and somewhat more acute, pale-membranous with the thin to thick green midrib excurrent in a short, paler mucro.
    Stigma
    Stigmas 2–3, pale, slender, flexuose, c. 0.4 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule ellipsoid, sometimes constricted above, 1.75 v 3 mm., obviously exceeding the perianth, scarcely compressed, smooth, indehiscent or irregularly rupturing at maturity.
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed-ellipsoid, c. 1–1.2 × 0.7–0.8 mm. in diam., black, shining and almost smooth, with a duller, slightly rugose border.
    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Perennial herb, prostrate to somewhat ascending, (8–)12–45(–80) cm.
    Stem
    Stem slender to rather stout, usually much branched from the base upwards, ± angular, green or reddish, glabrous below but usually increasingly furnished from well below the middle upwards with yellowish flexuous or crisped multicellular hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves moderately to ± densely furnished on the margins and lower surface (especially of the principal veins) with similar multicellular hairs, long-petiolate (petioles ± 6–25 mm. but rarely if ever exceeding the lamina); lamina broadly ovate to lanceolate (most commonly rhombic-ovate), ± 1–4.5 × 0.5–2.5 cm., subtruncate to shortly cuneate at the base, subacute to obtuse and sometimes shallowly retuse at the mucronulate apex.
    Flowers
    Flowers green, in slender and lax to stout and dense terminal and axillary spikes ± 2–10 cm. long and 5–12 mm. wide, the terminal spike not rarely with rather short stout branches and the lowest inflorescences dense subglobose clusters to ± 1 cm. in diameter; ♂ and ♀ flowers intermixed, the ♂ generally rather few.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, pale and membranous with a shortly percurrent greenish midrib, bracteoles usually about half the length of the perianth.
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments 2–3, linear- to oblong-spathulate, 1.5–2 mm., obtuse to subacute, ♂ and ♀ similar or ♂ slightly more acute, pale and membranous with the thin to thick green midrib excurrent in a short paler mucro.
    Stigma
    Stigmas 2–3, pale, slender, flexuous.
    Fruits
    Capsule ellipsoid, sometimes constricted above, 1.75–3 mm., obviously exceeding the perianth, scarcely compressed, smooth, indehiscent or irregularly rupturing at maturity; Seeds compressed-ellipsoid, ± 1–1.2 × 0.7–0.8 mm., black, shining and almost smooth, with a duller slightly roughened border.
    Figures
    Fig. 4/1.
    Habitat
    Cultivated and waste ground; 1640–1940 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 a native of temperate S. America widely naturalised in the Mediterranean region (Europe, N. Africa, Turkey), as well as in Macaronesia, Polynesia, N. America, etc.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Peru, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Azores, Baleares, Belgium, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Chad, Corse, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Japan, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea, Krym, Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Masachusettes, Mexico Northwest, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, New Jersey, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Switzerland, Tennessee, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Virginia, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

    Amaranthus deflexus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dusén, P. [6809], Brazil K001207039
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 230], Great Britain K000914062
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 497], Great Britain K000914063

    First published in Mant. Pl. 2: 295 (1771)

    Accepted by

    • Berry, M. (2019). Adventures and aliens news 17 BSBI News 141: 41-47.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
    • Iamonico, D. (2015). Taxonomic revision of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) in Italy Phytotaxa 199: 1-84.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2010). New floristic records in the Balkans: 13 Phytologia Balcanica 16: 143-165.
    • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
    • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
    • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1948). Flora Turkmenii 3: 1-280. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Berry, M. (2019). Adventures and aliens news 17 BSBI News 141: 41-47.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
    • Aellen, P. (1972). Flora Iranica 91: 1-19. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
    • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1948). Flora Turkmenii 3: 1-280. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Mant. Pl. Alt.: 295 (1771).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0