1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Amaranthus L.
      1. Amaranthus tricolor L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Asia.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1560 - 1560 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba
    [FWTA]

    Amaranthaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Erect herb, 2–6 ft. high; leaves, stems and flowers green or red
    Note
    A cultivated spinach.
    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual herb, ascending or erect, attaining c. 1.25 m. in cultivation in Africa (taller in Asia).
    Stem
    Stem stout and usually branched, both it and the branches angular, glabrous or furnished in the upper parts with sparse (or denser in the inflorescence), more or less crisped hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on the inferior surface of the primary venation, green or purplish-suffused, long-petiolate (petioles to c. 8 cm. long), the lamina broadly ovate, rhomboid-ovate or broadly elliptic to lanceolate-oblong, acute to obtuse or emarginate at the apex, shortly cuneate to attenuate at the base.
    Flowers
    Flowers green to crimson, in more or less globose clusters c. 4–25 mm. in diam., all or only the lower axillary and more or less distant, the upper sometimes without subtending leaves and increasingly approximate to form a thick terminal spike of variable length; male and female flowers intermixed.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles broadly or deltoid-ovate; bracteoles subequalling or shorter than the perianth, pale-membranous, broadest near the base and narrowed upwards to the green midrib, which is excurrent to form a long, pale-tipped awn which is usually at least half as long as the basal part and not rarely equalling it.
    Perianth
    Perianth segments 3, 3–5 mm. long, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, narrowed above, pale-membranous, the green midrib excurrent into a long, pale-tipped awn; segments of the female flowers slightly accrescent in fruit.
    Stigma
    Stigmas 3, erect or recurved, c. 2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid-urceolate with a short beak below the style-bases, 2.25–2.75 mm., membranous, obscurely wrinkled, circumcissile.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–1.5 mm. wide, black or brown, shining, faintly reticulate.
    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Annual herb, ascending or erect, attaining ± 1.25 m. in cultivation in Africa (even more in tropical Asia).
    Stem
    Stem stout, usually much branched, it and the branches angular, glabrous or furnished in the upper parts with sparse (or denser in the inflorescence) ± crisped hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on lower surface of primary nervation, green or purplish-suffused, very variable in size, long-petiolate (up to ± 8 cm.) lamina broadly ovate, rhomboid-ovate or broadly elliptic to lanceolate-oblong, emarginate to obtuse or acute at the apex, at the base shortly cuneate to attenuate, decurrent along the petiole.
    Flowers
    Flowers green to crimson, in ± globose clusters ± 4–25 mm. in diameter, all or only the lower axillary and distant, the upper sometimes without subtending leaves and increasingly approximate to form a thick terminal spike of variable length, ♂ and ♀ flowers intermixed.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles broadly ovate or deltoid-ovate; bracteoles subequalling or shorter than the perianth, pale and membranous, broadest near the base and gradually narrowed upwards to the green midrib which is excurrent to form a long pale-tipped awn usually at least half as long as the basal portion and not rarely equalling it.
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments 3, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 3–5 mm. long, narrowed above, pale and membranous, the green midrib excurrent into a long pale-tipped awn, those of the ♀ flowers slightly accrescent in fruit.
    Stigma
    Stigmas 3, erect or recurved, ± 2 mm.
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid-urceolate with a short beak below the style-base, 2.25–2.75 mm., circumscissile, membranous, obscurely wrinkled.
    Seeds
    Seed 1–1 5 mm., black or brown, shining, very faintly reticulate.
    Figures
    Fig. 4/6.
    Distribution
    Cultivated as a vegetable at Amani, and no doubt elsewhereapparently a native of tropical Asia, this species is a well-known ornamental and vegetable in the tropics P
    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Erect annual herb, mostly up to c. 90 cm. (rarely to 1.5 m.) tall.
    Stem
    Stem rather slender to stout, usually branched, angular, glabrous or increasingly furnished upwards (especially in the inflorescence) with short to rather long, multicellular hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous, or thinly and shortly pilose on the inferior surface of the primary venation, long-petiolate (petioles up to c. 8.5 cm. long, sometimes longer than the lamina), lamina ovate or rhomboid-ovate, 1.5–8 (12) × 0.7–5 (8) cm., blunt or retuse at the apex with a distinct, fine mucro formed by the percurrent nerve, cuneate (usually shortly so) at the base; leaf axils without spines.
    Flowers
    Flowers green, in the lower part of the plant in axillary clusters 4–10 cm. in diam., towards the ends of the stem and branches the leafless clusters approximated to form simple or (the terminal at least) branched spikes c. 3–15 (25) cm. long and 6–8 (10) mm. wide. Lower clusters of flowers entirely female, the spikes generally showing a few male flowers at the apices only (rarely in more than the apical 1 cm.), occasionally with male flowers also scattered among the lower female flowers.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate, pale-membranous with an erect reddish awn formed by the excurrent green midrib, bracteoles somewhat shorter than or subequalling the perianth, rarely slightly exceeding it.
    Perianth
    Perianth segments (4) 5, those of the female flowers c. 1.5–2.75 mm. long, narrowly oblong or spathulate oblong, obtuse or sometimes (particularly those approaching the male flowers) acute, mucronulate, frequently with a greenish dorsal vitta above; those of the male flowers broadly lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, generally acuminate, only the thin midrib green.
    Stigma
    Stigmas 3, flexuose or reflexed, c. 0.75–1 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule subequalling the perianth, ovoid-urceolate, with a short inflated beak below the style base, c. 1.5–1.75 mm., circumcissile, the lid strongly rugulose below the neck.
    Seeds
    Seed 1–1.25 mm., compressed, black, shining, faintly reticulate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Panamá, Philippines, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Benin, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Hainan, Haiti, Inner Mongolia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Maldives, Manchuria, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South China Sea, Sudan, Taiwan, Tibet, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Western Australia, Xinjiang

    Amaranthus tricolor L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6902] K001126119
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6902], Bangladesh K001126120
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126104
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126105
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126106
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899], India Amaranthus polygamus K001126107
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126108
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126109
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6899] Amaranthus polygamus K001126110
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6893], India Amaranthus tenuifolius K001126070
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6893] Amaranthus tenuifolius K001126071
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6893] Amaranthus tenuifolius K001126072
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6893] Amaranthus tenuifolius K001126073
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6893] Amaranthus tenuifolius K001126074
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6895] Amaranthus lanceolatus K001126085
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6895] Amaranthus lanceolatus K001126086
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6895] Amaranthus lanceolatus K001126087
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6898] Amaranthus mangostanus K001126103
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126088
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126089
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126090
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126091
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126092
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126093
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126094
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126095
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126096
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126097
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6896] Amaranthus gangeticus K001126098
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6905], Nepal Amaranthus tristis K001126131
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6905] Amaranthus tristis K001126127
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6905] Amaranthus tristis K001126128
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6905], Bangladesh Amaranthus tristis K001126129
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6905], Bangladesh Amaranthus tristis K001126130

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 989 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
    • Iamonico, D. (2015). Taxonomic revision of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) in Italy Phytotaxa 199: 1-84.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2011). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 132-142.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Thell. in Asch. & Grabner Synopsis 5, 1: 272.
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 32
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2011). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 132-142.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 61 (1953).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 116 (1950).
    • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 213 (1932).
    • J. G. Baker & C. B. Clarke in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 32 (1909).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 989 (1753).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0