1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Ricinus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Monoecious, glabrous annual or perennial herb or shrub, often tree-like.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, petiolate, stipulate, peltate, palmately-lobed, the lobes glandular-serrate, penninerved.
    Petiole
    Petioles glanduliferous at apex and base.
    Stipules
    Stipules united to form a caducous sheath.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences paniculate, leaf-opposed or subterminal, male in the lower half, female in the upper or rarely all female; bracts soon caducous.
    Flowers
    Male flowers: pedicels jointed, bibracteolate; buds globose; calyx membranous, closed at first, later splitting into 3–5 valvate lobes; petals absent; disk absent; stamens up to c. 1000, the filaments variously united, anthers basifixed, the cells subglobose, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode absent. Female flowers: pedicels considerably elongating in fruit; buds conical; sepals 5, valvate, soon caducous; petals absent; disk absent; ovary 3-celled, with 1 ovule per cell, echinate or smooth; styles 3, ± free or slightly connate at the base, bipartite, papillose-plumose, usually dark red.
    Fruits
    Fruit 3-lobed, echinate or smooth, the spines accrescent, dehiscing into 3 bivalved cocci, leaving a prominent persistent columella.
    Seeds
    Seeds dorsiventrally compressed-ovoid, smooth, usually marmorate, carunculate; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A large monoecious glabrous annual or perennial herb, often attaining tree-like proportions
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, petiolate, stipulate, peltate, palmately lobed, the lobes glandular-serrate, penninerved; petioles adaxially glanduliferous at and near the base, and with a pair of glands at the apex beneath the lamina
    Stipules
    Stipules united to form a sheath, soon caducous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences leaf-opposed or subterminal, paniculate, sessile, fairly lax, with the ♂ flowers in tight clusters in the lower half, and the ♀ flowers in more open clusters in the upper half, or rarely the inflorescence ± all ♀; bracts membranous, soon caducous
    Flowers
    Male flowers pedicellate, the pedicels articulate halfway up, basally bibracteolate; buds globose; calyx membranous, closed in bud, later splitting into 3–5 valvate lobes; petals 0; disc 0; stamens up to 1000, the filaments variously and haphazardly united to form a series of much-branched structures, each branch terminating in an anther, anthers basifixed, 2-thecous, the thecae distinct, subglobose, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0 Female flowers pedicellate, the pedicels articulate near the apex, basally bibracteolate, considerably extending in fruit; buds narrowly conical; sepals 5, valvate, soon caducous; petals 0; disc 0; ovary 3-locular, with 1 ovule per locule, echinate or rarely smooth; styles 3, ± free or very slightly connate at the base, bipartite, papillose-plumose, commonly dark red
    Male
    Male flowers pedicellate, the pedicels articulate halfway up, basally bibracteolate; buds globose; calyx membranous, closed in bud, later splitting into 3–5 valvate lobes; petals 0; disc 0; stamens up to 1000, the filaments variously and haphazardly united to form a series of much-branched structures, each branch terminating in an anther, anthers basifixed, 2-thecous, the thecae distinct, subglobose, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
    Female
    Female flowers pedicellate, the pedicels articulate near the apex, basally bibracteolate, considerably extending in fruit; buds narrowly conical; sepals 5, valvate, soon caducous; petals 0; disc 0; ovary 3-locular, with 1 ovule per locule, echinate or rarely smooth; styles 3, ± free or very slightly connate at the base, bipartite, papillose-plumose, commonly dark red
    Fruits
    Fruit 3-lobed, echinate or rarely smooth, dehiscing into 3 bivalved cocci; spines (when present) accrescent; endocarp crustaceous to thinly woody; columella persistent, 3-winged
    Seeds
    Seeds somewhat dorsiventrally compressed-ovoid, smooth, carunculate, usually marmorate; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Kenya

    Native to:

    Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Canary Is., Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Italy, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Korea, Leeward Is., Libya, Madeira, Maldives, Mali, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique Channel I, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Selvagens, Senegal, Sicilia, Society Is., Socotra, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tennessee, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Ricinus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1007 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 11: 119 (1919).
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 945
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 437 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 1007 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Pax in E.P. IV. 147(11): 119 (1919)
    • Prain in F.T.A. 6(1): 945 (1912)
    • G.P. 3(1): 321 (1880)
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 1016 (1866)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 435 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1007 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0