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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to N. America.
Acalypha sp (Euphorbiaceae)

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious, or occasionally dioecious, procumbent or erect, annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, often superficially resembling certain Urticaceae.
Morphology General Indumentum
Indumentum simple (Old World) or stellate (New World), often glandular.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, petiolate or subsessile, stipulate, sometimes stipellate, simple, crenate or serrate, palmi- or penninerved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal, axillary or both, unisexual or bisexual, spicate, racemose or paniculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers small, shortly pedicellate, glomerulate, usually subtended by inconspicuous bracts. Female flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate, solitary or 3–5 together, subtended by conspicuous accrescent foliaceous or inconspicuous bracts. Allomorphic female flowers terminal, median or basal in the inflorescences of some species, ebracteate . Female flowers: calyx lobes 3–4(5), imbricate, small; petals absent; disk absent; ovary 2–3-locular, with 1 ovule per loculus; styles free or connate, usually laciniate, reddish and rather showy, rarely entire or bilobed. Allomorphic female flowers terminal, median or basal in the inflorescences of some species, ebracteate [as a rule, allomorphic female flowers consist of long-pedicellate or subsessile, ebracteate, 5-sepalous structures, each having only one unilocular ovary, the axis of which is turned through almost 180°, so that the single style is sub-basal, sometimes protruding between 2 of the sepals. Male flowers: calyx closed in bud, later splitting into 4 valvate lobes; petals absent; disk absent; stamens usually 8 on a slightly raised receptacle, filaments free, broad, anther cells distinct, spreading or pendulous, oblong or linear, later becoming flexuous-vermiform; pistillode absent.
Note
As a rule, allomorphic female flowers consist of long-pedicellate or subsessile, ebracteate, 5-sepalous structures, each having only one unilocular ovary, the axis of which is turned through almost 180°, so that the single style is sub-basal, sometimes protruding between 2 of the sepals. Each flower thus produces only one single-seeded mericarp, which may or may not be provided with a dehiscence suture – see Radcliffe-Smith in Kew Bull. 28, 3: 525–529 (1974).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits 3-lobed, small, soon dehiscing septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci. Fruits of the allomorphic flowers 1(2)-lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ellipsoid or subglobose, small, carunculate or not; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious or rarely dioecious annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or rarely trees, of varying habit, but often superficially resembling Urtica species
Morphology General Indumentum
Indumentum usually simple, rarely stellate (some S. American spp.), often glandular
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, usually petiolate, stipulate, elobate, often ovate and toothed, palmi- or penninerved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences various, terminal or axillary or both, uni- or bisexual, spicate, racemose or paniculate, the ♂ inflorescences axillary, slender and catkin-like but erect, the ♀ inflorescences axillary or terminal, most often spicate, rarely racemose or paniculate, the androgynous inflorescences axillary or terminal, spicate or rarely racemose, most often ♀ at the base and ♂ above (either with few ♀’s and many ♂’s or vice versa), less often ♂ at the base and ♀ above
sex Male
Male flowers very small, shortly pedicellate, glomerate in small, inconspicuous bracts Male flowers: calyx closed in bud, later valvately 4-partite; petals and disc 0; stamens usually 8, attached to the slightly raised receptacle, filaments free, broad, anther-thecae distinct, spreading or pendulous, oblong or linear, later becoming flexuous-vermiform; pistillode 0
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers: calyx-lobes 3–4(–5), imbricate, small; petals and disc 0; ovary (2–)3-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles free or sometimes connate, usually laciniate, reddish and rather showy, rarely entire or bilobed Allomorphic ♀ flowers ebracteate; calyx ± as in the normal ♀ flowers; ovary 1(–2)-locular; styles subbasal Male flowers very small, shortly pedicellate, glomerate in small, inconspicuous bracts Female flowers either sessile and 1–3(–5) within a variously toothed or lobed accrescent bract which becomes foliaceous, or else shortly pedicellate and solitary in the axil of a small, non-accrescent bract; allomorphic ♀ flowers often terminate the inflorescences in some annual species, or may be co-axillary with normal inflorescences in some other species Male flowers: calyx closed in bud, later valvately 4-partite; petals and disc 0; stamens usually 8, attached to the slightly raised receptacle, filaments free, broad, anther-thecae distinct, spreading or pendulous, oblong or linear, later becoming flexuous-vermiform; pistillode 0
sex Female
Female flowers: calyx-lobes 3–4(–5), imbricate, small; petals and disc 0; ovary (2–)3-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles free or sometimes connate, usually laciniate, reddish and rather showy, rarely entire or bilobed Allomorphic ♀ flowers ebracteate; calyx ± as in the normal ♀ flowers; ovary 1(–2)-locular; styles subbasal Female flowers either sessile and 1–3(–5) within a variously toothed or lobed accrescent bract which becomes foliaceous, or else shortly pedicellate and solitary in the axil of a small, non-accrescent bract; allomorphic ♀ flowers often terminate the inflorescences in some annual species, or may be co-axillary with normal inflorescences in some other species
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits of allomorphic ♀ flowers 1(–2)-lobed Fruits 3-lobed, small, soon dehiscing septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ellipsoid or subglobose, small, carunculate or not, testa crustaceous, albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes mistaken for Urticaceae; indumentum usually simple, often glandular
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, often ovate, toothed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Mostly monoecious; inflorescences raceme-like, axillary and/or terminal, rarely branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals and disc absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually 8, free, anthers “wormlike” (elongated and contorted)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers mostly sessile, 1–3(–5) together in axil of accrescent leafy bract, sometimes pedicellate with non-accrescent bract; calyx imbricately 3–5-lobed; petals and disc absent “Allomorphic” (distinctive modified female) flowers sometimes within or terminating male racemes or coaxillary with normal inflorescences Male flowers minute, in clusters along catkin-like inflorescence. Calyx valvately 4-lobed, closed in bud
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary (2–)3-celled, ovules solitary; styles usually laciniate, often reddish and showy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a small deeply-lobed capsule, soon dehiscent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ellipsoidal or subglobose, smooth, carunculate or not.
Distribution
A large pantropical genus of about 430 species, a few extending into temperate areas of the New World. About 50 species in Africa, mostly in higher rainfall regions

[FSOM]
Use
Some introduced ornamentals are grown for their foliage and striking pendent inflorescences.

Native to:

Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:

St.Helena

Introduced into:

Bulgaria, Canary Is., Chagos Archipelago, Hawaii, Italy, Line Is., Madeira, Marquesas, Niue, Norfolk Is., Rodrigues, Seychelles, Tadzhikistan, Tuamotu, Turkey, Ukraine, West Siberia

Acalypha L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jacobs, M. [5140] 31295.000
McWhister, J. [195], Madagascar 32189.000
Hinton, G.B. [8622], México State K000476913
Hinton, G.B. [11999], Michoacán K000476915
Hinton, G.B. [9737], Guerrero K000476917
Hinton, G.B. [10470], Guerrero K000476925
Hinton, G.B. [205], México State K000476926
Boog [s.n.], Brazil K001206771
Roque, N. [4515], Brazil K001206781
Tweedie [s.n.], Brazil K001206814
Ferreira, A.R. [1011] K001206811
Harley, R.M. [28530], Brazil K001206780
Burchell [7513], Brazil K001206787
Gardner [1996], Brazil K001206795
Hinton, G.B. [10548], Guerrero K000476930
Forzza, R.C. [2966], Brazil K001206803
Silva, D.C. [86], Brazil K001206801
Graham [s.n.], Brazil K001206815
Hinton, G.B. [12083], Michoacán K000476918
Hinton, G.B. [5065], México State K000476924
Trail, J.W.H. [748], Brazil K001206813
Plowman, T. [2765], Brazil K001206777
Burchell [1370], Brazil K001206785
Oliveira, M. [23], Brazil K001206804
Preston, T.A. [126], Brazil K001206774
Gibert [70], Brazil K001206782
Gonzalez Ortega, J. [1635], Mexico K000503125
Hinton, G.B. [10693], Guerrero K000476916
Gardner [s.n.], Brazil K001206791
Guillemin [189], Brazil K001206807
Russell, P. [Cat. no. s.n.], Indian Subcontinent K001132528
Giulietti, A.M. [1669], Brazil K001206776
Silva, S.B. [315], Brazil K001206778
Anderson, W.R. [36932], Brazil K001206783
Palmer, E.W. [331], Tamaulipas K000476928
Rusby, H.H. [1258], Brazil K001206784
Oliveira, M. [7], Brazil K001206796
Lyonnet, E. [2154], Mexico K000503126
Plowman, T. [12917], Brazil K001206786
Gardner [s.n.], Brazil K001206792
Hinton, G.B. [2697], México State K000476923
Gardner [s.n.], Brazil K001206816
Burchell [7846], Brazil K001206790
Dusén [117], Brazil K001206809
Hinton, G.B. [8265], México State K000476927
Kirkbride, J.H. Jr. [4342], Brazil K001206775
Figueiredo, L. [131], Brazil K001206802
Ratter, J.A. [6436], Brazil K001206779
Talbot, H.F. [s.n.] K001206769
Gardner [721], Brazil K001206768
Gardner [1996], Brazil K001206794
Tessmann, G. [6135], Brazil K001206770
Claussen [s.n.], Brazil K001206812
Forzza, R.C. [3005], Brazil K001206799
Hinton, G.B. [350], México State K000476920
Gardner [721], Brazil K001206773
Forzza, R.C. [2707], Brazil K001206797
Burchell [2956], Brazil K001206793
Hinton, G.B. [1673], México State K000476922
Saint-Hilaire, A. [1338], Brazil K001206805
Forzza, R.C. [2813], Brazil K001206798
Krukoff, B.A. [4677], Brazil K001206808
Tschá, M. [66], Brazil K001206800
Burchell [5938], Brazil K001206789
s.coll. [1992], Brazil K001206772
Palmer, E.W. [505], Tamaulipas K000476929
Trail, J.W.H. [745], Brazil K001206810
Hinton, G.B. [8737], México State K000476914
Saint-Hilaire [5192], Brazil K001206806
Hinton, G.B. [10286], Guerrero K000476919
Hinton, G.B. [3897], México State K000476921
Burchell [8038], Brazil K001206788

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1003 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sagun, V.G., Levin, G.A. & van Welzen, P.C. (2010). Revision and phylogeny of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia Blumea 55: 21-60.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 16: 12 (1924).
  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 880

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 436 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.: 1003 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: M. G. Gilbert [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • G.P. 3(1): 311 (1880)
  • Hutch. in F.T.A. 6(1): 880 (1912)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 436 (1754)
  • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 799 (1866)
  • Pax in E.P. IV. 147(16): 12 (1924)
  • Sp. Pl.: 1003 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/