1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Croton L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to N. America.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Monoecious or sometimes dioecious trees or shrubs (or herbs or lianes outside the Flora Zambesiaca area) with a stellate and/or lepidote indumentum.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, sometimes subopposite or ± whorled, stipulate, petiolate, with 2 or more sessile or stipitate discoid glands at the petiole apex or the lamina base, simple, entire, toothed or lobed, penninerved or palminerved.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences usually terminal, racemose, androgynous or unisexual; bracts small.
    Flowers
    Male flowers shortly pedicellate; buds subglobose; sepals (4)5(6), valvate or imbricate, ± equal; petals (4)5(6), free; disk glands opposite the sepals, free or fused, fleshy; stamens 5–many, free, filaments inflexed in bud, later erect, anthers pendulous in bud, later erect, longitudinally dehiscent; receptacle usually pilose; pistillode absent. Female flowers pedicellate; sepals generally persistent, slightly accrescent, equal or unequal; petals often smaller than in male flowers, sometimes replaced by tufts of hairs or absent; staminodes sometimes present; disk annular, or of separate glands, or vestigial; ovary 2(3)4-locular, with 1 ovule per loculus; styles 1–several times bifid or bipartite, or multifid or multipartite.
    Fruits
    Fruits septicidally dehiscent into 3 bivalved cocci, loculicidally dehiscent into 3 valves, irregularly frangent (breaking up) or drupaceous and indehiscent; endocarp woody or crustaceous.
    Seeds
    Seeds carunculate; testa woody or crustaceous; albumen fleshy, copious; embryo straight; cotyledons broad and flat.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Monoecious or more rarely dioecious trees, shrubs or, more rarely, herbs or lianes, with an indumentum of stellate hairs or peltate scales, separately or in combination
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or sometimes subopposite or subverticillate on the same shoot, simple, entire or toothed, rarely lobed (not in E. Africa), penninerved or 3–many-nerved from the base, petiolate, usually with two (sometimes more) sessile or stalked discoid glands at the base of the blade, generally stipulate, often turning bright yellow or red when dying
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, sometimes axillary, racemose or spicate, with the flowers sometimes in fascicles or glomerules on the spike, rarely paniculate, androgynous, with the ♀ flowers usually below the ♂’s, or unisexual; bracts small, caducous or persistent
    Male
    Male flowers: sepals (4–)5(–6), valvate or imbricate, ± equal; petals usually present, (4–)5(–6), rarely more, free, equalling or shorter than (rarely longer than) the sepals; disc-glands small, opposite the sepals, free or fused, fleshy, rarely 0; stamens central, 5–many, free, inserted on a usually pilose receptacle, the filaments inflexed in bud, later erect, the anthers pendulous in bud, later erect, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
    Flowers
    Female flowers: sepals often narrower than in ♂, generally persistent and slightly accrescent, equal or unequal; petals often smaller and/or narrower than in ♂, or vestigial or 0, rarely replaced by tufts of hairs; staminodes sometimes present; disc annular or composed of separate glands, sometimes scarcely developed; ovary (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles 1–several times bifid or bipartite, rarely laciniate Male flowers: sepals (4–)5(–6), valvate or imbricate, ± equal; petals usually present, (4–)5(–6), rarely more, free, equalling or shorter than (rarely longer than) the sepals; disc-glands small, opposite the sepals, free or fused, fleshy, rarely 0; stamens central, 5–many, free, inserted on a usually pilose receptacle, the filaments inflexed in bud, later erect, the anthers pendulous in bud, later erect, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
    Female
    Female flowers: sepals often narrower than in ♂, generally persistent and slightly accrescent, equal or unequal; petals often smaller and/or narrower than in ♂, or vestigial or 0, rarely replaced by tufts of hairs; staminodes sometimes present; disc annular or composed of separate glands, sometimes scarcely developed; ovary (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles 1–several times bifid or bipartite, rarely laciniate
    Fruits
    Fruits dehiscent, septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci, or loculicidally into 3 valves, or sometimes drupaceous or berry-like, and then subindehiscent; endocarp woody or crustaceous
    Seeds
    Seeds smooth or more rarely rugulose, generally triangular-convex in transverse section, carunculate, with a woody or crustaceous testa and abundant fleshy albumen; embryo straight; cotyledons broad and flat.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Maryland, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Chagos Archipelago, Guinea-Bissau, Japan, Ontario, Rodrigues, Victoria, West Himalaya

    Croton L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Nov 1, 2014 s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Singapore K001132972
    Hinton, G.B. [3327], México State K000476732
    Hinton, G.B. [3327], México State K000476733
    Hinton, G.B. [10304], Guerrero K000476734
    Hinton, G.B. [944], México State K000476735
    Hinton, G.B. [7860], Guerrero K000476737
    Hinton, G.B. [8757], México State K000476739
    Hinton, G.B. [12690], Michoacán K000476740
    Hinton, G.B. [11818], Michoacán K000476741
    Hinton, G.B. [8979], México State K000476742
    Hinton, G.B. [11978], Michoacán K000476743
    Hinton, G.B. [13006], Michoacán K000476744
    Hinton, G.B. [4348], México State K000476745
    Hinton, G.B. [10334], Guerrero K000476746
    Hinton, G.B. [4293], México State K000476747
    Hinton, G.B. [6118], Guerrero K000476748
    Hinton, G.B. [1200], México State K000476736
    Hinton, G.B. [10520], Guerrero K000476738
    Hinton, G.B. [4268], México State K000476749
    Purpus, C.A. [13049], Mexico K000503090
    Andrieux, G. [110], Mexico K000503088
    Andrieux, G. [109], Mexico K000503089
    Langlassé, E. [1020], Mexico K000503094
    Langlassé, E. [824], Mexico K000503095
    Orcutt, C.R. [4515], Mexico K000503093
    Orcutt, C.R. [3305], Mexico K000503092
    Orcutt, C.R. [3303], Mexico K000503091
    Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132963
    Palmer, E.W. [390], Coahuila K000476750
    Palmer, E.W. [63], Tamaulipas K000476752
    Palmer, E.W. [93], Jalisco K000476754
    Palmer, E.W. [288], Chihuahua K000476755
    Palmer, E.W. [1147], Mexico K000476751
    Palmer, E.W. [1138 1/2], Mexico K000476753
    Brunt, M.A. [273], Cameroon K000181037

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1004 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Caruzo, M.B.R. & Cordeiro, I. (2013). Taxonomic revision of Croton section Cleodora (Euphorbiaceae) Phytotaxa 121: 1-41.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 19C: 83 (1931).
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 746
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 436 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 1004 (1753), pro parte
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hutch. in F.T.A. 6(1): 746 (1912)
    • G.P. 3(1): 293 (1880)
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 512 (1866)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 436 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1004 (1753), pro parte,

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [C] © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    [E] Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/