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  1. Family: Geraniaceae Juss.
    1. Geranium Tourn. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.


    Geraniaceae, J. O. Kokwaro (University College Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Annual or perennial herbs, rarely subshrubs, sometimes tufted, occasionally woody at the base
    Leaves alternate or opposite, petiolate, palmatelylobed or dissected, rarely toothed
    Inflorescence a simple axillary umbel of 2–3 flowers or the flowers solitary, the peduncle occasionally very short or lacking
    Flowers actinomorphic
    Sepals 5, imbricate, usually awn-tipped
    Petals 5, mostly notched, hypogynous, imbricate
    Stamens 10, usually all fertile, very rarely 5 without anthers; filaments free or shortly connate at the base
    Extrastaminal glands 5 and alternating with the petals, generally located at the base of the stamens
    Ovary 5-lobed and 5-locular, usually long beaked, each locule containing 2 superposed ovules, 1 ovule aborting; style glabrous inside, adhering to the beak, recoiled at maturity but not twisting; stigmas 5, filiform
    Fruit a schizocarp containing 4–5 mericarps, dehiscing by the splitting of the rostrum, the segments of which roll upwards, remaining attached at the apex, thus releasing the 1-seeded mericarp from the base of the calyx; in many species the mericarps open at the same time and the seeds are shot out
    Seeds with thin endosperm or exalbuminous; embryo with leafy cotyledon, curved or folded.

    Geraniaceae, T. Müller. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Ovary 5-lobed, 5-locular; loculi 2-ovulate, with 1 ovule aborting.
    Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by the splitting of the rostrum, the segments of which roll upwards (remaining attached at the apex) releasing the cocci from the base of the calyx.
    Seeds with little or no endosperm.
    Annual or perennial herbs.
    Leaves alternate or opposite, stipulate, palmately lobed or dissected.
    Flowers actinomorphic, solitary or in pairs, axillary.
    Sepals and petals 5.
    Disk-glands present.
    Stamens 10 (rarely 5), usually all antheriferous; filaments slightly connate at the base or sometimes free.



    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Bahamas, Bermuda, Cape Verde, Dominican Republic, Falkland Is., Haiti, Jamaica, Kermadec Is., Labrador, Malaya, Norfolk Is., Paraguay, Prince Edward I., Réunion

    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Geranium Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2004 Ahlberg, F. [s.n.], Sweden K000380401
    Pennington, T.D. [5386], Ecuador 25586.000
    Rico, L. [1299], Bolivia K000295046
    Rico, L. [1916], Morocco K000564899
    Rico, L. [1926], Morocco K000564890
    Rico, L. [1933], Morocco K000564883
    Rico, L. [1939], Morocco K000564879
    Rico, L. [1661], Armenia K000297349
    Rico, L. [1683], Armenia K000297327
    Rico, L. [1736], Armenia K000297313
    Rico, L. [1741], Armenia K000297315
    Rico, L. [1744], Armenia K000297259
    Rico, L. [1751], Armenia K000297265
    Rico, L. [1752], Armenia K000297266
    Rico, L. [1753], Armenia K000297294
    Rico, L. [1757], Armenia K000297289
    Rico, L. [1774], Armenia K000297089
    Rico, L. [1729], Armenia K000297320
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8562], India K001125861
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 8562], India K001125862
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 8564], India K001125864
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8561], India K001125859
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8561], India K001125860


    First published in Sp. Pl.: 676 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.


    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • —F.T.A. 1: 290.

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 306 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 676 (1753)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 306 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 676 (1753)


    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.