1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Mussaenda Burm. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Shrubs, scandent shrubs or lianas
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate; blades usually elliptic with an acute or acuminate apex, pubescent or less often glabrous; stipules entire to completely bilobed, persistent or caducous
    Flowers
    Flowers usually yellow to red or sometimes white, occasionally sweet-scented, isostylous or heterostylous, borne in terminal panicles
    Calyx
    Colleters usually present between the calyx-lobes Calyx-tube oblong, turbinate or ovoid; lobes 5, usually subulate, linear, slighdy spathulate or sometimes short and dentate or rounded, persistent or caducous; frequently several lobes on each inflorescence develop into a stalked white, creamy yellow or sometimes red dilated lamina
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube cylindrical, narrowly funnel-shaped or abruptly widened to accommodate the anthers, with flattened or fine hairs at the throat and between the anthers; limb 5-lobed, lobes reduplicate in bud, spreading at maturity, often with the centre portion connate, with short hairs and often a star of longer, coloured hairs above
    Anthers
    Anthers 5, with tips just level with the throat or inserted up to halfway down the tube, linear, connective very shortly acuminate at the apex, attached by very short filaments near the base
    Pistil
    Ovary 2 (rarely –3–4)-locular; ovules numerous, inserted on fleshy placentas; style slender, sometimes divided into 2 arms; stigma included or occasionally exserted; lobes 2, ± oblong to fusiform
    Fruits
    Fruit fleshy, indehiscent, globose, ellipsoid or oblong, sometimes crowned by the persistent calyx-lobes
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, pale brown to blackish, small, usually ± flattened, the surface reticulate.
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D.M.Bridson & B.Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:3. 2003

    Habit
    Shrubs, scandent shrubs or lianes.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, blades usually elliptic with an acute or acuminate apex, pubescent or less often glabrous.
    Stipules
    Stipules entire to completely bilobed, persistent or caducous.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually yellow to red or sometimes white, occasionally sweet- scented, isostylous or heterostylous, borne in terminal panicles.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube oblong, turbinate or ovoid; limb-tube small; lobes 5, usually subulate, linear, slightly spathulate or sometimes short and dentate or rounded, persistent or caducous; frequently several lobes on each inflorescence develop into a stalked white, creamy-yellow or sometimes red calycophyll (TAB. 73/A5).
    Colleters
    Colleters usually present between the calyx lobes.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, yellow or red; tube cylindrical, narrowly funnel-shaped or abruptly widened to accommodate the anthers, with flattened or fine hairs at the throat and between the anthers; limb 5-lobed, lobes reduplicate in bud, spreading at maturity, often with the centre portion connate, with short hairs and often a star-shape of longer, coloured hairs above.
    Anthers
    Anthers 5, the tips just level with the throat or inserted up to halfway down the tube, linear, attached by very short filaments near the base; connective very shortly acuminate at the apex.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2 (rarely 3–4)-locular; ovules numerous, inserted on fleshy placentas; style slender, sometimes divided into 2 arms; stigma included or occasionally exserted; lobes 2, ± oblong to fusiform.
    Fruits
    Fruit fleshy, indehiscent, globose, ellipsoid or oblong, sometimes crowned by the persistent calyx lobes, often lenticellate.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, pale brown to blackish, small, usually ± flattened, the surface reticulated.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Philippines, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Caroline Is., Trinidad-Tobago

    Mussaenda Burm. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2001 Cable, S. [2884], Cameroon K000109782
    Nov 1, 2001 Cable, S. [3704], Cameroon K000109785
    Nov 1, 2001 Cable, S. [3653], Cameroon K000109786
    Nov 1, 2001 Cable, S. [3843], Cameroon K000109787
    Nov 1, 2001 Cable, S. [3827], Cameroon K000109788
    Nov 1, 2001 Cable, S. [3551], Cameroon K000109790
    Nov 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1402 A], Cameroon K000109780
    Nov 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2641], Cameroon K000109784
    Nov 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2838], Cameroon K000109789
    Nov 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2714], Cameroon K000109791
    Nov 1, 2001 Onana, J.-M. [532 A], Cameroon K000109781
    Nov 1, 2001 Gosline, G. [82], Cameroon K000109783
    Davis, A.P. [631], Indonesia 59617.000
    Davis, A.P. [631], Indonesia 62695.000
    Davis, A.P. [1129], Madagascar 63896.000
    Davis, A.P. [1128], Madagascar 63897.000
    Davis, A.P. [1074], Madagascar 63900.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 177 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Alejandro, G.J.D., Meve, U. & Liede-Schumann, S. (2016). A taxonomic revision of Philippine Mussaenda (Rubiaceae, Mussaendeae) Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 457-524.
    • Shimpale, V.B., Yadav, S.R. & Babu, C.R. (2009). A review of the genus Mussaenda (Rubiaceae) from Great Nicobar island, India, including a new species Rheedea 19: 53-57.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F. Hallé in Adansonia 1: 266—298 (1961).
    • Wernham in J. Bot. 51: 233 (1913)
    • —F.T.A. 3: 65
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F. Hallé in Adansonia, n.s. 1: 266–298 (1961).
    • Petit in Bull. Jard. Bot. État 25: 149–167 (1955).
    • Wernham in J. Bot. 51: 233–240 & 274–278 (1913).
    • Hiern in F.T.A. 3: 65 (1877).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 85 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 177 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F. Hallé in Adansonia sér. 2, 1: 266–298 (1961)
    • Petit in B.J.B.B. 25: 149–167 (1955)
    • Wernham in J.B. 51: 233–240 & 274–278 (1913)
    • Hiern in F.T.A. 3: 65 (1877)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 85 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 177 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0