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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

[FZ]

Moraceae, C. C. Berg. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or sometimes lianas, terrestrial or hemi-epiphytic (and then with aerial roots, often strangling and secondarily terrestrial), monoecious or (gyno)dioecious.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves spirally arranged, distichous, subopposite or subverticillate; lamina pinnately veined, with glandular (sometimes waxy) spots in the axils of at least the basal lateral veins beneath or (mostly a single spot) at the base of the midrib beneath; stipules fully amplexicaul, semi-amplexicaul or lateral, free or partly connate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences (figs or syconia) solitary or in pairs in the leaf axils, mostly several together on small spurs in the leaf axils down to the lesser branches or on distinct spurs on the lesser branches down to the trunk, or on leafless branchlets on the older wood, down to the base of the trunk.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts 2–3(4) on the peduncle (peduncular bracts) or 2–3 subtending the receptacle (basal bracts), sometimes on the outer surface of the receptacle (lateral bracts); numerous bracts in the opening of the receptacle (ostiolar bracts), and often among the flowers (interfloral bracts).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Pistillate flowers sessile or pedicellate; tepals 2–6(7), free or connate; ovary free, stigmas 1 filiform or infundibuliform or 2 and ± filiform or subulate, the stigmas cohering; pistillate flowers in (gyno)dioecious taxa are strongly differentiated into long-styled and short-styled flowers, while in monoecious taxa (where all pistillate flowers set seed) styles of intermediate lengths often occur. Staminate flowers occur near the ostiole or dispersed within the inflorescence, mostly pedicellate; tepals 2–6, free or connate; stamens 1–3, pistillode mostly absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits achene-like or more often ± drupaceous, releasing the endocarp body (pyrene) or not; at the fruiting stage the wall of the fig becomes ± fleshy, yellow, orange, red, pink or purplish, or green. “Gall fruits” achene-like. Figs consist of an urceolate receptacle with a ± narrow apical opening (ostiole), the flowers enclosed within; figs are functionally bisexual, containing staminate flowers, long styled flowers (destined to produce seeds) and short styled flowers (destined to hatch the larvae of the pollinator); or the figs on one plant occur as “gall figs” containing staminat flowers and short styled flowers (which do not produce seeds but serve as breeding sites for the pollinator) and on another plant occur as “seed figs” containing only long-styled, fully functional, pistillate flowers.

[FTEA]

Moraceae, C.C. Berg (University of Bergen). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or sometimes lianas, terrestrial or hemi-epiphytic (and then with aerial roots, often strangling and secondarily terrestrial), monoecious or dioecious
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in spirals, distichous, subopposite or subverticillate; lamina pinnately veined with glandular (sometimes waxy) spots in the axils of at least the basal lateral veins beneath or (mostly a single spot) at the base of the midrib beneath; stipules fully amplexicaul, semi- amplexicaul or lateral, free or partly connate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Figs unisexual, containing staminate flowers, seed flowers (destined to produce seeds) and gall flowers (destined to hatch the larvae of the pollinator) or the figs on one plant containing staminate flowers and gall flowers (gall figs) and on another plant containing only seed flowers (seed figs); bracts 2–3(–4) on the peduncle (peduncular bracts) or subtending the receptacle (basal bracts), sometimes on the outer surface of the receptacle (lateral bracts), many in the opening of the receptacle (ostiolar bracts), and often among the flowers (interfloral bracts) Inflorescences (figs; syconia) solitary or in pairs in the leaf-axils, mostly several together on small spurs in the leaf-axils down to the lesser branches or on distinct spurs on the lesser branches down to the trunk, or on leafless branchlets on the older wood down to the base of the trunk
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle urceolate, with a narrow apical opening (ostiole)
sex Male
Staminate flowers near the ostiole or dispersed, mostly pedicellate; tepals 2–6, free or connate; stamens 1 or 1–3; pistillode present or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Pistillate flowers sessile or pedicellate; tepals 2–6(–7), free or connate; ovary free; stigmas 1, filiform or infundibuliform, or 2 and ± filiform; pistillate flowers ± strongly differentiated into seed flowers (sessile or shortly pedicellate, ovary often oblong to ovate and the style relatively long) and gall flowers (mostly pedicellate, ovary often ± obovate and the style relatively short, in dioecious species; gall flowers mostly not functional) Staminate flowers near the ostiole or dispersed, mostly pedicellate; tepals 2–6, free or connate; stamens 1 or 1–3; pistillode present or absent
sex Female
Pistillate flowers sessile or pedicellate; tepals 2–6(–7), free or connate; ovary free; stigmas 1, filiform or infundibuliform, or 2 and ± filiform; pistillate flowers ± strongly differentiated into seed flowers (sessile or shortly pedicellate, ovary often oblong to ovate and the style relatively long) and gall flowers (mostly pedicellate, ovary often ± obovate and the style relatively short, in dioecious species; gall flowers mostly not functional)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits achene-like or often ± drupaceous, releasing the endocarp-body (pyrene) or not; at fruit the wall of the fig mostly ± fleshy, coloured or green; gall fruits achene-like.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules free or ± fused, encircling the stem, covering the terminal bud, caducous, leaving a circular scar round the stem
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a bisexual, fleshy, globular or pear-shaped, hollow receptacle (a “fig”) with male, female and neuter (“gall”) flowers covering the inside and a narrow opening (“ostiole”), partly closed by bracts Flowers very small on inside of receptacle, bracteate, pedicellate or sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacles occasionally stipitate, i.e. with a short stalk above the basal bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers numerous; tepals 2–6; ovary ovoid, ± asymmetrical; style lateral; stigmatic branches 1–2 Male flowers usually few, mostly situated near the ostiole; tepals 2–4; stamens 1–6; rudimentary ovary absent
Morphology General Galls
Gall flowers mostly as the female flowers, but usually pedicellate and with reduced style and stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit an achene Figs and peduncles sometimes completely covered when young by a flat or conical structure (“calyptra”) consisting of fused bracts attached on the branch at the base of the peduncle Figs sessile or pedunculate, usually with 2–3 basal bracts, situated where the receptacle narrows into the peduncle, sometimes also with bracts spirally arranged on the outside
Note
Flowers and fruits are not described under the individual species.
Distribution
Over 800 species, pantropical.
Morphology General Habit
Monoecious trees or shrubs, mostly epiphytic at first, with watery, colourless, or milky latex
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, or sometimes opposite or subopposite, petiolate, pinnately or palmately veined

Native to:

Afghanistan, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Line Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Albania, Arkansas, Ascension, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Chagos Archipelago, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., Easter Is., France, Galápagos, Great Britain, Hawaii, Hungary, Italy, Juan Fernández Is., Krym, Madeira, Massachusetts, Morocco, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Portugal, Sardegna, Sicilia, South Carolina, Spain, St.Helena, Sweden, Switzerland, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Uzbekistan, Wake I., Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Ficus Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jul 27, 2013 Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K000946828
Jul 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [412], Cameroon K000027241
Jan 1, 1996 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8207], Brazil K000946827
Oct 1, 1980 Glaziou, A.F.M. [13213], Brazil K000946824
Eyles, F. [8818], Zimbabwe 13148.000
Kenya 13149.000
Robson, N.K. [928], Zambia 13150.000
Keay, R.W.J. [25803], Nigeria 13151.000
Angus, A. [435], Zambia 15979.000
Forman, L.L. [282], Indonesia 15980.000
Forman, L.L. [189], Indonesia 17076.000
Forman, L.L. [210], Indonesia 17077.000
Sands, M.J.S. [401], Indonesia 26332.041
Brenan, J.P.M. [7892], Zambia 2710.000
Papua New Guinea 2716.000
Forman, L.L. [350], Indonesia 2717.000
Forman, L.L., Indonesia 2718.000
Rodway, F.A. [2543], Australia 2719.000
Hamilton, A.C. [93], Uganda 27461.010
Tanzania 29047.039
Newbould, J. [2481], Tanzania 29101.000
Small, D. [81], Sierra Leone 29372.000
Miller, A.K. [393], Uganda 29435.000
Dawkins, H. [671], Uganda 30414.000
Tweedie, E.M. [3305], Kenya 35459.000
Kajewcki [1912], Papua New Guinea 46960.000
Hepper [8170], Côte d'Ivoire 47009.000
Harris, D.J. [746], Central African Republic 53769.000
Harris, D.J. [492], Central African Republic 53771.000
Pennington, T.D. [10501], Ecuador 54211.000
Morren [3066], New Guinea 60069.000
Morren [3065], New Guinea 60080.000
Fay, J.M. [8637], Central African Republic 60243.000
Harris, D.J. [1110], Central African Republic 60361.000
Frodin, D.G. [3197A], New Guinea 63130.000
Frodin, D.G. [3358], New Guinea 63183.000
Harris, D.J. [1429], Central African Republic 63257.000
Cheek, M. [8888], Cameroon 63838.000
Coode, M. [4177], Reunion 7334.000
Hamilton, A.C. [95], Uganda 7554.000
Philcox, D. [4572], Brazil 7573.000
Jacobs [7932], Philippines 7666.000
Utteridge, T.M.A. [396], Indonesia 70091.000
Johns, R.J. [10494], Indonesia 70092.000
Johns, R.J. [10623], Indonesia 70093.000
Utteridge, T.M.A. [397], Indonesia 70094.000
Johns, R.J. [10617], Indonesia 70095.000
Utteridge, T.M.A. [42], Indonesia 62395.000
Utteridge, T.M.A. [81], Indonesia 62405.000
Johns, R.J. [10430], New Guinea 62497.000
Johns, R.J. [9781], New Guinea 62505.000
Puradyatmika, P. [10435], New Guinea 70577.000
Johns, R.J. [9766], New Guinea 70609.000
Johns, R.J. [9779], New Guinea 70610.000
Johns, R.J. [10425], New Guinea 70615.000
Johns, R.J. [9779], New Guinea 70616.000
Johns, R.J. [9780], New Guinea 70620.000
Johns, R.J. [10423], New Guinea 29047.976
Johns, R.J. [10423], New Guinea 29047.973
Johns, R.J. [10595], New Guinea 29047.978
Johns, R.J. [10595], New Guinea 29047.979
Johns, R.J. [10472], New Guinea 29047.980
Triono, T. [174], New Guinea 29047.981
Johns, R.J. [10667], New Guinea 64379.000
Johns, R.J. [10450], New Guinea 64378.000
Johns, R.J. [10493], New Guinea 64417.000
Johns, R.J. [10446], New Guinea 64382.000
Johns, R.J. [10661], New Guinea 64380.000
Johns, R.J. [10430], New Guinea 64384.000
Johns, R.J. [10494], New Guinea 64383.000
Johns, R.J. [10435], New Guinea 71247.000
Johns, R.J. [10405], New Guinea 71252.000
Johns, R.J. [10503], New Guinea 71249.000
Johns, R.J. [10511], New Guinea 71250.000
Johns, R.J. [10510], New Guinea 71261.000
Johns, R.J. [10682], New Guinea 71262.000
Johns, R.J. [10430], New Guinea 70652.000
Johns, R.J. [10713], Indonesia 72653.000
Johns, R.J. [8747], Indonesia 72668.000
Johns, R.J. [10470], Indonesia 70000.098
Johns, R.J. [10512], Indonesia 64591.000
Johns, R.J. [10510], Indonesia 64593.000
Johns, R.J. [10510], Indonesia 64594.000
Johns, R.J. [10510], Indonesia 72681.000
Johns, R.J. [10595], Indonesia 72680.000
Johns, R.J. [10511], Indonesia 72679.000
Harley, R.M. [21392], Brazil 72757.000
Chevalier, A. [22444], Ivory Coast K000243191
Fyffe, R. [77], Uganda K000243355
Johns, R.J. [10792], Indonesia 70000.145
Johns, R.J. [10792], Indonesia 64616.000
Johns, R.J. [10797], Indonesia 64620.000
Johns, R.J. [10802], Indonesia 73262.000
Johns, R.J. [10792], Indonesia 73276.000
Walker, J.S. [DB325], Sulawesi 73935.000
Walker, J.S. [DB165], Sulawesi 73949.000
Johns, R.J. [10794], New Guinea 64563.000
Johns, R.J. [10794], New Guinea 64564.000
Johns, R.J. [10796], New Guinea 64726.000
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Nepal K001132560
Rosário, C.S. [1007], Brazil K000946825
Harley, R.M. [21515], Brazil K000946826
Spruce, R. [2217], Brazil K000946433
Pott, A. [2464], Brazil K000946823
Cheek, M. [8273], Cameroon K000381398
Asongani, J.N. [1298], Cameroon K000436266
s.coll. [2217], Brazil K000946432

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Berg, C.C. & Villavicencio, X. (2004). Taxonomic studies on Ficus (Moraceae) in the West Indies, extra-Amazonian Brazil, and Bolivia Ilicifolia 5: 1-130.
  • Chantarasuwan, B., Berg, C.C. & van Welzen, P.C. (2013). A revision of Ficus subsection Urostrigma (Moraceae) Systematic Botany 38: 653-686.
  • Chaudhary, L.B., Sudhakar, J.V., Kumar, A., Bajpai, O., Tiwari, R. & Murthy, G.V.S. (2012). Synopsis of the genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Taiwania 57: 193-216.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Pederneiras, L.C. & Romaniuc-Neto, S. (2019). Taxonomic revision of Ficus sect. Pharmacosycea (Moraceae) Systematic Botany Monographs 107: 1-148.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"
  • WCVP (2021). World Checklist of Vascular Plants, version 2.0. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://wcvp.science.kew.org/ Retrieved 28 April 2021

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 78

Flora Zambesiaca

  • C.C. Berg in F.T.E.A., Moraceae: 43 (1989)
  • Corner in Gard. Bull., Singapore 21: 1 (1965).
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 482 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753)
  • in Kirkia13: 253–291 (1990).
  • van Greuning in S. Afr. J. Bot.56, 6: 599–630 (1990).

Flora of Somalia

  • Aweke in Meded. Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 79-3: 1–115 (1979)
  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by I. Friis [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Friis in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 23a: 407–424 (1990).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 482 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0