1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Newtonia Baill.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Trees, often tall, unarmed
    Leaves
    Leaves bipinnate; pinnae each with one to many pairs of leaflets; rhachis of leaf usually (always in our species) with a gland between each pair of opposite pinnae
    Calyx
    Calyx and petals pubescent or puberulous outside
    Anthers
    Anthers with or without an apical gland
    Ovary
    Ovary densely pilose outside
    Flowers
    Flowers and pods otherwise as in Piptadeniastrum (p. 21) Flowers sessile or nearly so, in spikes or spiciform racemes
    Seeds
    Seeds flattened, oblong, brown, surrounded by a membranous wing; the body of the seed much elongate in the direction of the length of the pod; cotyledons elongate in the same direction as the radicle; funicle slender, attached at or near one end of the seed.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Trees and lianas
    Ecology
    Tropical rain forest, both high and low elevations, riparian and swamp forest; littoral or sublittoral deciduous forest, woodland and bushland
    Distribution
    Africa (11 spp. in WC and W regions, 2 spp. extending to Zambezian regions; 3 spp. in the Somalia-Masai, Zanzibar-Inhambane and Zambezian regions of E and SE Africa)
    Note
    Lewis & Elias (1981: 161) place this in the Newtonia group with Cylicodiscus and Indopiptadenia

    The tribe Mimoseae (sensu Bentham, 1875) is retained here simply as a matter of convenience. All recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that Ingeae and Acacieae are derived from within Mimoseae (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Käss & Wink, 1996; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), making it a paraphyletic group at best. The most recent studies indicate that it may not even be monophyletic with respect to the Caesalpinioideae (Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003).

    Although the outline of a new tribal classification of the mimosoids is emerging, we await better-supported phylogenies (based on more extensive data) before formalising new stable and useful groups. Some parts of the classification proposed here are better supported than others. Notably, the basal branches in Fig. 24 are poorly supported in most analyses and the relationships among the groups are likely to change as we acquire more data. As presently indicated (Luckow et al., 2003), the type genus Mimosa falls within the derived Piptadenia group which is in turn sister, and basally branching, to elements of Acacia and Ingeae (Fig. 24). A more narrowly circumscribed Mimoseae sens. strict. will thus leave the bulk of Mimoseae sens. lat. (i.e., as treated here) in need of new tribal allocation. The most conspicuous difference between the classification presented here and that of Lewis & Elias (1981) is the inclusion of tribe Parkieae within Mimoseae. The former was circumscribed based on imbricate aestivation of the calyx, and was considered the basal tribe within the Mimosoideae (Elias, 1981a). Recent phylogenetic analyses (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), indicate that the two genera in the Parkieae, Parkia and Pentaclethra, are not sister taxa (Fig. 24). Pentaclethra is nested within Mimoseae in Luckow et al. (2000), but is either sister to caesalpinioid taxa in Bruneau et al. (2001) and Herendeen et al. (2003a), or part of a basal polytomy with Mimoseae and caesalpinioid taxa (Luckow et al., 2003). Both Parkia and Pentaclethra are included in the tribe Mimoseae pending additional data and tribal recircumscription.

    Recent work (Luckow et al., submitted a) also indicates that the monospecific tribe Mimozygantheae should be subsumed in the Mimoseae near Piptadeniopsis and Prosopidastrum, currently in the Prosopis group. Otherwise, the informal groups within the Mimoseae recognised by Lewis & Elias (1981) are relatively well-supported by current phylogenies and only a few departures have been made from their system. Where relationships are either poorly supported or unresolved, the classification of Lewis & Elias (1981) is retained. The Xylia group is dismantled and the Adenanthera group recircumscribed to include Calpocalyx and Xylia . Desmanthus has been removed from the Dichrostachys group, as has Neptunia, in agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic studies (Harris et al., 1994; Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1995, 1997). A new group is erected to accommodate Piptadeniastrum which is well separated from Newtonia in the most recent phylogeny (Luckow et al., 2000; 2003), and another to accommodate Cylicodiscus, which is more closely related to the clade containing the Prosopis, Leucaena, Dichrostachys, and Piptadenia groups than it is to the Newtonia group. Neptunia is well supported as sister to Prosopidastrum in recent analyses (Luckow et al., 2003) and is included in the Prosopis group here. Relationships of genera in the Prosopis group are not resolved, but the group is retained here as there is no evidence that it is not monophyletic. Genera newly described since 1981 include Alantsilodendron, Calliandropsis, Kanaloa, and Lemurodendron. Alantsilodendron and Calliandropsis are placed in the Dichrostachys group, and Kanaloa in the Leucaena group based on phylogenetic analyses (Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1997; Luckow et al., 2000). Lemurodendron is tentatively included in the Newtonia group as suggested by Villiers & Guinet (1989). As treated here the Mimoseae comprises 40 genera and from (859)– 869–(879) species.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, J.P.M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 3:1. 1970

    Habit
    Trees, often tall, unarmed.
    Leaves
    Leaves 2-pinnate; pinnae each with one to many pairs of leaflets; rhachis of leaf usually (always in our species) with a gland between each pair of opposite pinnae.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or nearly so, in spikes or spiciform racemes.
    Calyx
    Calyx gamosepalous, 5-toothed. Calyx and petals pubescent or puberulous outside, sometimes on the margins only.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, free, separated from the gynophore base by a short perigynous zone.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, fertile; anthers with or without an apical gland.
    Ovary
    Ovary densely pilose outside.
    Fruits
    Pods straight or somewhat curved, flattened, at maturity dehiscing along one of the margins, the valves remaining attached along the other, splitting neither transversely nor into layers.
    Seeds
    Seeds flattened, oblong, brown, surrounded by a membranous wing; the body of the seed much elongated in the direction of the length of the pod; cotyledons elongate in the same direction as the radicle; funicle slender, attached at or near one end of the seed.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Various species used for timber (e.g., N. buchananii (Baker) G.C.C.Gilbert & Boutique, lokundu, omutoyo ) in construction, cabinetry, frames, joinery, railway sleepers and canoe making; the bark of at least one species has reputed aphrodisiac properties, also used for medicine and as shade plants

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Newtonia Baill. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 721 (1888)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 721 (1888).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Bull. Soc. Linn. Par. 1: 721 (1888)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Bull. Soc. Linn. Par. 1: 721 (1888)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0