1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Parkinsonia Plum. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Africa, Southern America and Northern America..

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Shrubs and trees
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical bushland, semidesert scrub, coastal dunes and flood plains
    Distribution
    5 in S USA and Mexico (2 extending to Baja California and 1 widely cultivated throughout the tropics), 1 in N Argentina and S Bolivia, 1 widespread from Mexico through Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru to N Argentina; 4 in Africa (1 endemic to Kenya, 1 to Somalia, 1 more widespread in the E and NE and 1 in S and SW Africa); 2 naturally occurring hybrids (both in Mexico and Baja California, 1 also recorded from Honduras and Ecuador)
    Note
    Polhill & Vidal (1981) placed the genus in the Caesalpinia group of Caesalpinieae, but Polhill (1994) transferred it to the Peltophorum group in agreement with the subsequently published work of Lewis & Schrire (1995); a position confirmed by the molecular analyses of Bruneau et al. (2001) and Herendeen et al. (2003a) where it is sister to a Delonix-Lemuropisum clade; also nested in the 'core- Peltophorum group' in the molecular analysis of Haston et al. (2003) as sister to a Conzattia-Delonix-Colvillea-Lemuropisum clade; 2 species and 1 hybrid in Cercidium currently lack combinations in Parkinsonia

    Polhill & Vidal (1981) divided the Caesalpinieae into 8 informal generic groups: the Gleditsia group (2 genera), the Acrocarpus group (monogeneric), the Sclerolobium group (3 genera), the Peltophorum group (13 genera), the Caesalpinia group (16 genera), the Poeppigia and Pterogyne groups (both monogeneric) and the Dimorphandra group (10 genera). They commented that the tribe is “a remarkable mixture of relics and complexes of relatively recent speciation, providing many pitfalls for formal systematics and biogeographical interpretations”. Polhill (1994) added a ninth informal group, the monogeneric Orphanodendron group, and placed Cordeauxia as a synonym of Stuhlmannia (both genera recognised in the present treatment) so that the total of 47 genera in the tribe remained unchanged. Within the tribe, Parkinsonia (including Cercidium), Conzattia and Lemuropisum were moved from the Caesalpinia group to the Peltophorum group (Polhill, 1994) in agreement with the subsequently published works of Lewis & Schrire (1995) and Du Puy et al. (1995b).

    Since 1994 several studies have cast new light on intergeneric relationships within the Caesalpinieae, necessitating the restructuring of some of the nine informal generic groups presented by Polhill (1994). As pointed out in the introduction to tribe Cassieae, the genus Ceratonia has been removed from that tribe to the Caesalpinieae, and Poeppigia has been removed from the Caesalpinieae to the Cassieae (for further detail see discussion under each genus). In the rbcL phylogeny of Doyle et al. (1997) the Caesalpinieae, as traditionally circumscribed, was shown to be paraphyletic with members scattered throughout a clade which also included genera of the Cassieae and one mimosoid genus. The molecular analysis of Kajita et al. (2001) also found the Caesalpinieae to be non-monophyletic. In the molecular analysis of Bruneau et al. (2001) some of the informal generic groups of Polhill (1994) were supported as monophyletic but the tribe as a whole was clearly demonstrated to be paraphyletic. With regard to intergeneric relationships, Pterogyne resolved as sister to a Caesalpinia group clade; Batesia and Vouacapoua fell outside a core- Peltophorum group, and the Dimorphandra group was clearly shown to be a diverse assemblage of genera, many of which share certain characteristics with the Mimosoideae, specifically with members of tribe Mimoseae (Bruneau et al., 2001). Erythrophleum was sister to a clade that comprised the majority of the Mimosoideae sampled, and Pachyelasma was sister to the two mimosoid genera Pentaclethra and Calpocalyx. Herendeen et al. (2003a) in a combined molecular-morphological analysis which expanded on the study of Bruneau et al. (2001), presented an ‘Umtiza clade’ containing Gymnocladus and Gleditsia (the two members of Polhill and Vidal’s Gleditsia Group), Umtiza (traditionally included in tribe Detarieae), Tetrapterocarpon (from the Dimorphandra Group), Acrocarpus (the sole genus of the Acrocarpus Group), and Ceratonia (from subtribe Ceratoniinae in tribe Cassieae). This new generic grouping raises some fascinating phytogeographical questions (see Schrire et al., pages 21–54, this volume). Pterogyne resolved as sister to a Chamaecrista-Senna clade (of tribe Cassieae) a relationship worthy of further study; Batesia and Vouacapoua again fell outside the core-Peltophorum group; Dimorphandra grouped with Mora as sister to all Mimosoideae, and Pachyelasma grouped with Erythrophleum as sister to the Dimorphandra-Mimosoideae clade. In the phylogenetic investigation of Haston et al. (2003), the Peltophorum group of Polhill (1994) was non-monophyletic but there was support for a core-Peltophorum group comprising Peltophorum, Parkinsonia, Schizolobium, Conzattia, Delonix, Lemuropisum, Colvillea and Bussea. Pterogyne resolved as sister to a clade containing Haematoxylum and Cordeauxia (both of the Caesalpinia group), thus supporting the earlier findings of Bruneau et al. (2001) rather than those of Herendeen et al. (2003a). Haston et al. (submitted) have further refined the relationships of the non core-Peltophorum group genera. They place Arapatiella and Jacqueshuberia with Tachigali in a newly defined Tachigali group and find strong molecular support for associating Batesia with Recordoxylon and Melanoxylon in a new Batesia group. Moldenhawera is placed in its own monogeneric group sister to a Tachigali group–core-Peltophorum group–Dimorphandra group–Mimosoideae clade. In an analysis testing the monophyly of the Umtiza clade (Herendeen et al., 2003b), Arcoa (traditionally of the Dimorphandra group) from the Dominican Republic was added to the group of genera in that clade.

    Without doubt, the genus with the greatest taxonomic and nomenclatural complexity within the Caesalpinieae is the type genus Caesalpinia, which in its broadest sense comprises c. 140 spp. and contains 25 generic names in synonymy. Of these 140 species, 12–15 predominantly Asian taxa have still to be included in molecular studies and cannot yet be assigned to any generic segregate recognised in this treatment (see notes under Caesalpinia L.). Studies by Lewis & Schrire (1995), Simpson & Miao (1997), Lewis (1998), Simpson (1998, 1999), Simpson & Lewis (2003) and Simpson et al. (2003), have clearly demonstrated that Caesalpinia, as traditionally circumscribed, is polyphyletic. In this treatment Hoffmannseggia is recognised as distinct following Simpson & Miao (1997), Simpson (1999) and Ulibarri (1979, 1996); Pomaria is also segregated from Caesalpinia sens. lat. following Simpson (1998) and Simpson & Lewis (2003). The genera Coulteria, Erythrostemon, Guilandina, Libidibia, Mezoneuron, Poincianella and Tara are also reinstated following the findings of Lewis & Schrire (1995), Lewis (1998), Simpson et al. (2003), Lewis & Bruneau (unpublished), Lewis & Lavin (unpublished) and Sotoyo (unpublished). Caesalpinia sens. strict. is, in consequence, reduced to a genus of 25 species.

    The Caesalpinieae as presented here contains 56 genera and (423)–436–(448) species (Fig. 23). Thirty two of the genera contain 3 or fewer species each, with 23 monospecific (a second species of Orphanodendron has apparently been discovered in Colombia, but is, as yet, undescribed [Cogollo Pacheco, pers. comm., 2002]). A new genus, tentatively named as Heteroflorum by Sousa & Delgado (1993), but not yet formally published, is a monospecific Mexican endemic closely related to Conzattia. It is not dealt with here. The informal generic groups of tribe Caesalpinieae presented by Polhill & Vidal (1981) and Polhill (1994) are retained in part in Fig. 23 which accompanies this treatment, but there are some noteworthy exceptions. The Gleditsia and Acrocarpus groups are both subsumed into the ‘Umtiza clade’; Diptychandra is rejected from the Sclerolobium group which now becomes the Tachigali group and includes Arapatiella and Jacqueshuberia; Poeppigia is moved to the Cassieae; several genera are removed from the Peltophorum group leaving a core of nine related genera (if Heteroflorum is included); Batesia, together with Recordoxylon and Melanoxylon constitutes a new Batesia group based on the work of Haston et al. (submitted). Moldenhawera is placed in its own group as its generic relationships are currently unclear (Haston et al., submitted). The Caesalpinia group increases in size from 12 to 21 genera. Five genera are currently too poorly known for them to be placed with confidence: Campsiandra, Chidlowia, Diptychandra, Orphanodendron and Vouacapoua.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock & R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees, not climbing, armed with spines (modified branches or leaf rachis) or unarmed, not glandular.
    Leaves
    Leaves bipinnate, sometimes (in both F.Z. species) with the pinna rachis ± phyllodial and the leaflets very reduced or absent; stipules very small to conspicuous and spinescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers in long or short axillary racemes; bracts caducous.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle comprising a disc and a lower elongate part up to 10 mm long simulating the pedicel from which it is demarcated by a distinct joint.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, valvate to narrowly imbricate (perhaps varying between flowers on the same plant), subglabrous.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, subequal, the upper one usually with a distinct claw.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, not or slightly exceeding the petals; filaments alternately longer and short, densely pubescent in the lower part; anthers dorsifixed dehiscing by longitudinal slits.
    Pistil
    Ovary shortly stipitate, glabrous to pubescent, with up to 8 ovules; style sometimes twisted; stigma truncate, ciliolate or glabrous.
    Fruits
    Pods ± linear-elliptic to linear, flat or ± turgid, sometimes constricted between the seeds, indehiscent or the valves sometimes separating slightly from each other; seeds up to 8 but frequently only a few developing, usually longitudinally elongate in the pod with the hilum at one end, compressed, with endosperm.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Shrubs or trees, not climbing, armed with spines or unarmed, eglandular
    Leaves
    Leaves bipinnate; stipules various, minute and scale-like to conspicuous and spinescent; leaflets opposite or (P. aculeata) partly alternate, sometimes much reduced or absent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of axillary racemes which are sometimes corymbose and short; bracts minute and scale-like, falling quickly
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, valvate or subvalvate to very narrowly imbricate, or more widely so
    Corolla
    Petals 5, subequal except for the usually somewhat modified upper one, which usually has a more pronounced claw than the others
    Stamens
    Stamens 10; filaments alternately longer and shorter, all pubescent below; anthers dorsifixed, opening by longitudinal slits
    Pistil
    Ovary free, stipitate, with 2–6 ovules, glabrous to (more usually) ± pubescent; style glabrous or clothed below like the ovary, often ± spirally twisted; stigma truncate, ciliolate or glabrous
    Fruits
    Pods flat or turgid, ± constricted or not between the seeds, not winged, indehiscent, with usually papery or thinly coriaceous brown valves
    Seeds
    Seeds usually ± oblique or longitudinal, hard; funicle usually rather long and slender; endosperm present.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Jerusalem thorn, paloverde) is widely cultivated throughout the tropics as an ornamental and thorn hedge but can escape to become a weed; also used for medicine and human food (flowers eaten in Senegal, the seeds of P. africana Sond. used as a coffee substitute)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, California, Cape Provinces, Colombia, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, Northern Provinces, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Somalia, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Texas, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Algeria, Assam, Bangladesh, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Cyprus, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Mexico, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Queensland, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, South Australia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Parkinsonia Plum. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 375 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 266.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed.5: 177 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 375 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Brenan in K.B. 17: 203 (1963)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 177 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 375 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0