1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Plectranthus L'Hér.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Perennial or annual, sometimes succulent, subshrubs or herbs or geoxylic herbs, usually aromatic
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, rarely bipinnate, sometimes succulent, opposite, rarely ternate, very rarely scattered
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence thyrsoid, condensed or lax, with cymes sessile or pedunculate, bracteate, very rarely braceolate, 1- to many-flowered
    Bracts
    Bracts caducous or persistent, sometimes coloured at apex; bracteoles rarely present
    Pedicel
    Pedicel very rarely jointed with distal part falling with calyx
    Calyx
    Calyx funnel-shaped or shortly tubular, often ventrally gibbous, straight or slightly or strongly curved, strongly 2-lipped or actinomorphic, 5-lobed (1/4 or isomorphic), lobes equal or unequal; posterior lip lanceolate to obovate, sometimes decurrent, la
    Corolla
    Corolla strongly two-lipped, 5-lobed (4/1), white, blue, purple or yellow, posterior lip long or short, ascending, reflexed or truncate, 4-lobed, median lobes exceeding lateral, anterior lip horizontal or sometimes finally deflexed, cucullate or concave,
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, very rarely 2, fused or free at base, held within anterior lip or exserted
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes subulate or linear
    Anthers
    Anthers usually ± orbicular, but rarely with outer edges of locules fused in lower half to form a pouch which opens apically
    Disc
    Disc 4-lobed with anterior lobe larger, sometimes exceeding ovaries
    Style
    Style bifid or rarely emarginate
    Fruits
    Nutlets, ovoid, glabrous, slightly flattened or not, mucilaginous or not.
    Note
    2n = 24-48 (-84).  Three-hundred species. Treatment here is based on a synthetic approach, using similarity of several characters.  This broad generic concept is in accordance with Keng (1978) and Hedge (1998).  As a result, many traditionally recognized
    Distribution
    Old World tropics.  Introduced to Macaronesia, New Zealand, Central Pacific, Southeastern U.S.A., Central America, the Caribbean and South America
    [FTEA]

    Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Habit
    Perennial or annual, sometimes succulent, subshrubs or herbs or geoxylic herbs, usually aromatic
    Stem
    Stems usually branched
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, rarely bipinnate, opposite, rarely ternate, very rarely scattered
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence thyrsoid, condensed or lax, with cymes sessile or pedunculate, bracteate, very rarely braceolate, 1–many-flowered; bracts caducous or persistent; pedicel very rarely jointed with distal part falling with calyx
    Calyx
    Calyx funnel-shaped or shortly tubular, with the pedicel attaching symmetrically at the centre of the calyx base, or asymmetrically behind the posterior lip, straight or slightly or strongly curved, strongly 2-lipped or actinomorphic, 5lobed (1/4 (1 posterior, 4 anterior), rarely 3/2 or actinomorphic); lobes equal or unequal; posterior lip lanceolate to obovate, sometimes decurrent; lateral lobes rounded to lanceolate; anterior lobes lanceolate to subulate at apex, sometimes fused for part of their length, rarely with a deep split between them; throat open, truncate or oblique, glabrous or bearded, very rarely circumscissile at base
    Corolla
    Corolla white, blue, purple or yellow, strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (4/1); posterior lip long or short, ascending, reflexed or truncate, 4-lobed, median lobes usually exceeding lateral; anterior lip horizontal or sometimes finally deflexed, cucullate or concave; corolla-tube narrow, straight, variously curved or sigmoid, parallel-sided, more rarely gibbous or spurred at base, dilating distally and parallel-sided or narrowing towards throat, very rarely annulate within
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, fused or free and adjacent at base, fused to corolla at corolla throat at the base of the anterior lip, held within anterior lip or exserted; anthers usually ± orbicular, dorsifixed, synthecous, sometimes ellipsoid, but rarely with outer edges of locules fused in lower half to form a pouch which opens apically
    Disc
    Disk 4-lobed with anterior lobe larger, sometimes exceeding ovaries
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, very rarely pubescent at apex, deeply 4-lobed; style bifid with lobes spreading, subulate or linear or rarely entire
    Fruits
    Nutlets ovoid, slightly flattened or not, glabrous, rarely pubescent, mucilaginous or not 2 n = 24–48(–84)
    Note
    ON CONSERVATION: Information from herbarium specimens has been used to calculate preliminary conservation assessments for Plectranthus species endemic to the F.T.E.A. and Flora Zambesiaca areas, as outlined in Willis, Moat & Paton (2003). In these cases the following abbreviations have been used. EOO: extent of occurrence; AOO: area of occupancy (see also www.iucnredlist.org/info/categories_criteria). Subpopulations were calculated using adjacent cells (Schatz et al., 2000) and by Rapoport distances using a barrier distance twice the average line length from the minimum spanning tree (MST) and buffer distance is the average line length of MST (Rapoport, 1982). Within the ‘Coleus’ clade there are several groups of species: 38–39 have an entire style and have been recognized as Holostylon; 83–91 have fused anterior calyx lobes and have been recognized as Solenostemon; 93–100 have a dense ring of hairs in the calyx throat (subgen. Calceolanthus Codd). However within both the major clades, and, to a small extent, between the main clades themselves, there are species which do not fall into readily recognizable, mutually exclusive groups. Within both clades there are some groups of species which can be recognized. In the ‘Plectranthus’ clade species 2 and 3 have an oblique calyx throat with the lateral lobes of the calyx closer to the median lobes of the anterior (lower) lip than to the posterior (upper) lip and the corolla tube is saccate at the base; other species having a truncate calyx throat and usually non-saccate, usually sigmoid corolla tube. Species 26–32 have a rootstock and produce stems annually. The ‘Plectranthus’ clade of Paton et al. (2004) is represented by species nos 1–33. These species have the anterior and posterior lips of the corolla ± equal in length, a symmetrical calyx base with the pedicel attaching at the midline of the calyx, free stamens and ovoid nutlets. The ‘Coleus’ clade is represented by species 35–104. In this group the posterior corolla lip is usually shorter than the anterior, the calyx is usually asymmetric at the base with the pedicel behind the posterior lip of the calyx; the stamens are free or fused and the nutlets are often flattened. ON GROUPINGS OF PLECTRANTHUS: A formal classification is not adopted here. A phylogenetic overview of the genus is presented in Paton et al. (2004) and Lukhoba et al. (2006) and provides a working informal grouping of species. These treatments are not congruent with previous morphological classifications, such as that by Codd in Bothalia 11: 371–442 (1975). Further work is needed before proposing a formal classification. The key to Plectranthus by Codd in Fl. Southern Africa provides a good basis for identifying the cultivated Plectranthus of southern tropical Africa. P. scutellarioides (L.) R.Br. ( Coleus blumei Benth.) from tropical Asia is similar to P. dupuisii below and is widely cultivated for its brightly coloured and variegated, sometimes incised leaves.
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Herbs or shrubs, aromatic
    Leaves
    Leaves simple
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence thyrsoid, often condensed, elongate or capitulate, with cymes sessile, usually 5-10-flowered, condensed
    Bracts
    Bracts caducous or persistent, sometimes coloured at apex or membranous
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, ventrally gibbous, slightly compressed at throat, straight or curved slightly upwards, sometimes apically deflexed, strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (1/4), unequal, posterior lip oblong or lanceolate, not decurrent, deflexed at throat, sometimes
    Corolla
    Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (4/1), blue or purplish, posterior lip ascending with median lobes exceeding lateral, anterior lip horizontal, cucullate; tube narrow, parallel-sided at base, curved or straight at the base, curved and dilating distally
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, fused at base, held over or within lower lip
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes linear, often parallel
    Disc
    Disc 4-lobed with anterior lobe much larger, exceeding ovaries
    Fruits
    Nutlets, ovoid, glabrous, flattened, mucilaginous.
    Distribution
    Five to six species in Western and Southern Tropical Africa.
    [LKGF]
    Use
    Used medicinally and a few species as tuber crops and for hedging. P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is widely used as a pot herb.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Extinct in:

    Norfolk Is.

    Introduced into:

    Belize, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Cambodia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Leeward Is., Madeira, Marquesas, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Niue, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., St.Helena, Tokelau-Manihiki, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

    Plectranthus L'Hér. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 4, 1991 Collenette, I.S. [8203], Saudi Arabia 76773.000
    11399.000
    Drummond, R.B. [2846], Tanzania 17456.000
    Drummond, R.B. [2846], Tanzania 17555.000
    Bally, P.R.O. [B.13949], Kenya 36083.000
    Tweedie, E.M. [4262], Kenya 34136.000
    Polhill, R. [1188], Tanzania 23357.000
    Hepper, F.N. [4538], Sri Lanka 60187.000
    Jacobs, M. [7036], Philippines K000897825
    H. [7039], Kenya 60217.000
    Mathew, B. [6108], Kenya 27461.038
    Mathew, B. [6164], Kenya 6049.217
    Mathew, B. [6108], Kenya 6049.232
    Collenette, I.S. [6364], Saudi Arabia 52261.000
    Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8553], Cameroon K000070636
    Wood, J.R.I. [2423], Yemen 42485.000
    Greenwood, P.J. [11894], Tanzania 31968.000
    Brummitt [10888], Malawi 42047.000
    H.and J. [7050], Kenya 56005.000
    Castro [22148], Philippines K000897826
    Breteler, F.J. [219], Cameroon K000070633
    Loher, A. [4197], Philippines K000897824
    Loher, A. [4229], Philippines K000897828
    Loher, A. [4191], Philippines K000897830
    Loher, A. [7282], Philippines K000897831
    Vidal, S. [3485], Philippines K000897823
    Burley, J.S. [152], Philippines K000897837
    Sulit, M.D. [7560], Philippines K000897834
    Reynoso, E. [27185], Philippines K000897827
    Reynoso, E. [27296], Philippines K000897835
    Edaño, G.E. [24742], Philippines K000897833
    Ramos, M. [22360], Philippines K000897829
    Ramos, M. [37647], Philippines K000897832
    Ramos, M. [39218], Philippines K000897836
    Frodin, D. [3079], Papua New Guinea K000897906
    Carr, C.E. [12041], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897961
    Milne-Redhead, E. [3976], Angola Coleus 73048.000
    Brass, L.J. [30360], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897960
    Brass, L.J. [32712], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897964
    Brass, L.J. [29648], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897965
    Womersley, J.S. [6176], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897955
    H. [6895], Kenya Coleus 60216.000
    Schodde, R. [2875], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897962
    McKee, H.S. [1513], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897966
    McKee, H.S. [1738], Indonesia Coleus K000897967
    Kanis, A. [1343], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897971
    White, K.J. [NGF10183], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897963
    Wight, R. [Cat. no. s.n.], Tamil Nadu Coleus K001132515
    Vandenberg, J. [NGF35005], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897956
    Henty, E.E. [NGF9853], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897968
    Kostermans, A. [567], Indonesia Coleus K000897957
    Kostermans, A. [18636], Indonesia Coleus K000897699
    Kostermans, A. [759], Indonesia Coleus K000897700
    Giulianetti, A. [s.n.], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897969
    Flenley, J.R. [ANU2074], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897951
    Buderus, J. [NGF20745], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897950
    Eyma, P.J. [3422], Indonesia Coleus K000897697
    Barker, W.R. [LAE67612], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897958
    Bateson, G. [52], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897953
    Bateson, G. [113], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897954
    Gebo, A. [1605], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897970
    Sigin, G. [107204], Malaysia Coleus K000897698
    Bulmer, R.N.H. [103677], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897959
    Peckel, G. [8], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897952
    Frodin, D. [NGF28419], Papua New Guinea Coleus K000897972
    Dagong bin Bakir [2745], Malaysia Coleus K000897701

    First published in Stirp. Nov.: 84, verso (1788)

    Accepted by

    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Morton in J. Linn. Soc. 58: 242 (1962). Nom. cons.
    • Stirp Nov. 1: 84 (1784)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • J. Ethnopharm. 103: 1–24 (2006)
    • K.B. 59: 379–414 (2004)
    • Molec. Phylog. Evol. 31: 277–299 (2004)
    • Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 6: 264 (2004)
    • Rapoport, E.H. (1982). Areography: Geographical Strategies of Species. Pergamon Press, New York.
    • Bothalia 11: 371–442 (1975)
    • J.L.S. 58: 231–283 (1962)
    • Stirp. Nov. Fasc. 4, t. 41, 42 (1788)
    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
    • Hedge in Hedge, Clement, Paton & Phillipson, Flore de Madagascar et des Comores 175: 137-235 (1998), reg. rev.
    • Calchas P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160 (1997).
    • Forster, Austrobaileya 4: 159-186 (1994), reg. rev.
    • Keng in van Steenis (ed.), Fl. Malesiana 8, 3: 382-393 (1978), reg. rev.
    • Codd, Bothalia 11: 371-442 (1975), reg. rev.
    • Neohyptis J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 258 (1962)., (1963).
    • Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 231-283 (1962), reg. rev.
    • Ascocarydion G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69(Suppl. 2): 162 (1931).
    • Perrierastrum Guillaumin, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., II, 2: 692 (1930).
    • Briquetastrum Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 102 (1929).
    • Holostylon Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 103 (1929).
    • Isodictyophorus Briq., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 61(8): 285 (1914 publ. 1917).
    • Leocus A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 125 (1909).
    • Symphostemon Hiern (1900).
    • Burnatastrum Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3A): 358 (1897).
    • Capitanya Schweinf. ex Gürke (1895). (Capitanya Schweinf. ex Penzig Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 21: 105 (1893) nom nud.).
    • Englerastrum Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 178 (1894).
    • Neomuellera Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 180 (1894).
    • Majana Rumph. ex Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 523 (1891).
    • Saccostoma Wall. ex Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 449 (1845).
    • Mitsa Chapel. ex Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 52 (1832).
    • Solenostemon Thonn. in C.F.Schumacher, Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 271 (1827).
    • Coleus , Fl. Cochinch.: 372 (1790).
    • Plectranthus L' Hér., Stirp. Nov. Fasc. 4: t. 41, 42 (1788)
    • Germanea Lam., Encycl. 2: 690 (1788).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0