1. Family: Passifloraceae Juss. ex Roussel
    1. Passiflora L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is New World, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to SW. Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Passifloraceae, W. J. J. O. de Wildem (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

    Note
    For generic synonyms see Harms, and Killip, loc. cit.
    Habit
    Mostly perennial climbing herbs to large lianas, rarely (not in Africa) shrubs or trees, glabrous or hairy, provided with tendrils
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly alternate, unlobed to deeply lobed, palminerved or pinninerved, petiolate; margin mostly dentate, often with small gland-teeth; petiole with or without glands; blade-glands present or not
    Stipules
    Stipules minute to large
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences sessile or peduncled, 1–many-flowered, with or without a simple tendril, or rarely flowers collected into pseudoracemes; bracts and bracteoles small to large, forming a conspicuous involucre or not
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, 5-merous; hypanthium saucer-shaped to cylindrical
    Perianth
    Sepals and petals free, often brightly coloured; petals mostly resembling sepals, membranous, sometimes absent
    Corona
    Corona extrastaminal, variously shaped, simple or mostly composed of a usually complicated outer corona consisting of threads, and flat or plicate inner coronas, sometimes with the addition of a nectary ring or annulus
    Androgynophore
    Androgynophore mostly distinct, 3 mm. or more.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5(–8), free (or in some Asian species partly connate), in older flowers mostly reflexed; anthers dorsifixed, versatile, elliptic to linear
    Pistil
    Gynophore absent or sometimes up to 7 mm.; ovary globose to fusiform; styles 3(–4), free or connate at base; stigmas capitate
    Fruits
    Fruit usually indehiscent, ± baccate, often with coriaceous exocarp, globose, ellipsoid or rarely fusiform, containing many seeds.
    [FZ]

    Passifloraceae, R. & A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Scandent herbs or shrubs usually climbing by tendrils, rarely erect.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, entire, lobed or partite; petiole often with glands; stipules 2 or absent, sometimes foliaceous.
    Tendrils
    Tendrils usually solitary in the axils of the leaves, sometimes ending the peduncles, rarely absent.
    Flowers
    Flowers rather large and handsome, axillary, solitary or in racemes, hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual; peduncles articulate, often 3-bracteate.
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube patelliform, campanulate or urceolate to tubular. Sepals 4–5, linear-oblong or linear, often coloured inside, sometimes with horns on the back below the apex.
    Corolla
    Petals 4–5 or absent, membranous, ± equal to the sepals but more vividly coloured.
    Nectaries
    Nectar-ring (inframedian corona) an annular ridge within or below the operculum, sometimes wanting.
    Corona
    Limen (basal corona) close to the base of the gynophore, annular or cupuliform, sometimes wanting. Operculum (middle or membranous corona) membranous, flat or plicate, entire, lacerate or filamentose, rarely wanting. Corona (faucial and supramedian corona) of 1 to several series of distinct or ± united filaments, rarely tubular.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4–5, with the filaments adnate to the gynophore, free at the apex; anthers linear, ovate or oblong, 2-celled, dorsifixed.
    Pistil
    Ovary oblong or subglobose, borne on a gynophore which is usually elongate, rarely absent; styles 3 or 4, subterminal, cylindrical or clavate; stigmas capitate; ovules numerous, rarely few, attached to 3 rarely 4 placentas.
    Fruits
    Fruit dry or pulpy, sometimes an irregularly 3-valved capsule.
    Seeds
    Seeds usually numerous, compressed, arillate, with the testa usually scrobiculate and the endosperm fleshy; cotyledons foliaceous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Malaya, Maluku, Maryland, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Solomon Is., South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Sumatera, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, West Virginia, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Albania, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Ascension, Azores, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chile South, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Maldives, Marianas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Nauru, New Jersey, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Rodrigues, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Uganda, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Passiflora L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Guyana 16612.000
    73408.000
    Harley, R.M. [22078], Brazil 72705.000
    Erskine, C., Brazil 34125.000
    Lewis, G.P. [1119], Brazil 54508.000
    Johns, R.J. [10496], New Guinea 70635.000
    Lewis, G. [844], Brazil 60570.007
    Sugden, A.M. [507], Panama 55800.000
    Ollerton, J. [113], Guyana 76078.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 955 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Porter-Utley, K. (2014). A revision of Passiflora L. subgenus Decaloba (DC.) Rchb. supersection Cieca (Medik.) J.M.MacDougal & Feuillet (Passifloraceae) PhytoKeys 43: 1-224.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & Vásquez, R. (2009). A revision of Passiflora sections Insignes and ×Inkea (Passifloraceae) Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 66: 35-53.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. Pl. 1: 810.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 410 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 955 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • de Wilde in Fl. Males., ser. 1, 7 : 407 (1972)
    • Killip in Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Chicago, Bot. 19 : 1–613 (1938)
    • Harms in E. & P. Pf., ed. 2, 21 : 495 (1925)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5 : 410 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. : 955 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0