1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Tephrosia Pers.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is America, Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, or softly woody shrubs; hairs basifixed, often silky
    Leaves
    Leaves usually imparipinnate, less often simple or 1-foliolate, rarely palmately 3–7-foliolate; stipellae absent except perhaps in the palmate-leaved species; leaflets entire, usually narrowed at the base and widest above the middle, lateral nerves parallel, running through to the margin and often united there to form a well-developed marginal nerve, rather obscure pellucid dots sometimes present
    Flowers
    Flowers pedicellate, 2 or more together or very rarely, outside Flora area, singly in the axils of the upper leaves or at the nodes of terminal, leaf-opposed, or, less often, axillary pseudoracemes, which are sometimes much condensed, the inflorescence thus becoming subcapitate or subumbellate; bracts present; bracteoles usually absent
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, the lower lobe usually the longest, the upper 2 lobes often ± united
    Corolla
    Corolla usually reddish-purple; standard pubescent or silky outside, with a well-defined claw; wings glabrous, slightly adhering to the keel, the claw more than one-eighth as long as the blade, which is usually rugose near the base; keel usually glabrous, the claw clearly distinct from the blade, which is auriculate at the base
    Filaments
    Vexillary filament lightly attached to the others or, less often, free, widened and often sharply bent and callous a little above the base; remaining filaments somewhat unequal, united for two-thirds or four-fifths of their length, the free parts upcurved, not widened at the tip
    Disc
    A lobed ± collar-like disc usually present between the filaments and the ovary
    Pistil
    Ovary 1–22-ovulate, pubescent, nearly always sessile; style sharply or gradually upcurved, linear or tapering, sometimes twisted, glabrous or pubescent; stigma a transverse line when the style is linear, punctate or minutely capitate when the tip of the style is cylindrical and in that case often penicillate
    Fruits
    Pod linear or oblong, ± flattened, not truly septate, never (in Flora area) glabrous, usually dehiscing, often explosively, scattering the seeds, the separated valves then becoming twisted; pod-apex ending in a beak (persistent style-base), which may be straight, deflexed, or bent upwards and is usually in line with the upper suture but sometimes between the upper and lower sutures (“central”)
    Seeds
    The seeds may be “longitudinal” (long axis parallel to that of pod), “transverse” or “oblique”; funicle short; aril almost absent, small or well developed.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae by R.K. Brummitt

    Inflorescences
    Inflorecences usually in terminal and leaf-opposed or axillary pseudoracemes, with flowers clustered at the nodes, the inflorescences sometimes paniculate or contracted and dense, or the flowers clustered (elsewhere rarely singly) in the axils of upper leaves; bracteoles generally absent. Inflorecences usually in terminal and leaf-opposed or axillary pseudoracemes, with flowers clustered at the nodes, the inflorescences sometimes paniculate or contracted and dense, or the flowers clustered (elsewhere rarely singly) in the axils of upper leaves; bracteoles generally absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, the upper pair of lobes joined higher, the lowest lobe often longest. Calyx 5-lobed, the upper pair of lobes joined higher, the lowest lobe often longest.
    Corolla
    Petals usually reddish-purple, sometimes salmon-pink or red or yellowish-orange; standard pubescent or silky outside, with a well-defined claw; keel petals oblong-elliptic or oblong-falcate, with a distinct claw and auriculate at the base of the blade, joined along the lower margin, slightly adhering to the wings. Petals usually reddish-purple, sometimes salmon-pink or red or yellowish-orange; standard pubescent or silky outside, with a well-defined claw; keel petals oblong-elliptic or oblong-falcate, with a distinct claw and auriculate at the base of the blade, joined along the lower margin, slightly adhering to the wings.
    Stamens
    Upper filament lightly attached to the others or less often free, widened and often arched at the base; free parts relatively short, not widened at the tip; anthers dorsifixed. Upper filament lightly attached to the others or less often free, widened and often arched at the base; free parts relatively short, not widened at the tip; anthers dorsifixed.
    Ovary
    Ovary usually sessile, 1–22-ovulate; style sharply or gradually upcurved, linear or tapering, sometimes twisted, glabrous or pubescent; stigma a transverse line, punctate or minutely capitate, in the last case often pencil-like.
    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, or softly woody shrubs, rarely small trees. Annual or perennial herbs, or softly woody shrubs, rarely small trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually imparipinnate, less often 1-foliolate, rarely palmately 3–7-foliolate; leaflets usually narrowest at the base and widest above the middle, with the lateral nerves parallel, running through to the margin and often united there to form a well-developed marginal nerve; stipels absent except in palmately-leaved species. Leaves usually imparipinnate, less often 1-foliolate, rarely palmately 3–7-foliolate; leaflets usually narrowest at the base and widest above the middle, with the lateral nerves parallel, running through to the margin and often united there to form a well-developed marginal nerve; stipels absent except in palmately-leaved species.
    Disc
    Disk usually present around the base of the ovary. Disk usually present around the base of the ovary.
    Pistil
    Ovary usually sessile, 1–22-ovulate; style sharply or gradually upcurved, linear or tapering, sometimes twisted, glabrous or pubescent; stigma a transverse line, punctate or minutely capitate, in the last case often pencil-like.
    Fruits
    Pod usually linear to oblong, variously beaked, dehiscent. Pod usually linear to oblong, variously beaked, dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong-reniform, with a small hilum; aril developed to varying degrees; radicle incurved. Seeds oblong-reniform, with a small hilum; aril developed to varying degrees; radicle incurved.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Shrubs or herbs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical woodland, bushland, thicket and grassland, often in open and disturbed sandy or rocky areas
    Distribution
    Pantropical, concentrated in C and tropical N America (c. 45 spp.), Africa-Madagascar (c. 170 spp.), Asia (c. 40 spp.) and Australia (c. 90 spp.)
    Note
    A taxonomically complex genus; Pedley (pers. comm.) notes that c. 12 species from N Australia, characterised by leaves with reticulate veins, could be segregated as a separate genus

    Relationships among genera of Millettieae have been notoriously difficult to unravel based on traditional morphological evidence and this is exemplified by the alphabetical arrangement of genera in the tribal treatments of Geesink (1981; 1984) and Polhill (1994). Geesink (1981) recognised 44 genera and c. 870 species in tribe Millettieae (as ‘Tephrosieae’) while 43 genera were accounted for in Geesink (1984) and Polhill (1994). The genera recognised, however, varied considerably with only 33 genera in common to both treatments of Geesink, while the list of Polhill (1994) combined elements of Geesink (1981, 1984) with new data accumulated since then. Tephrosia has traditionally comprised some 400 species but this is re-estimated at c. 350 species here.

    The traditional circumscription of the predominantly pantropical and subtropical tribe Millettieae is followed here (Fig. 45), with 45 genera and (904)–909–(914) species being recognised, (i.e. excluding the two genera and 11 species transferred to Brongniartieae, see Table 8), although the concept of what comprises Millettieae sens. strict. is changing rapidly based on evidence from molecular phylogenies. Sequence data for millettioid genera comes from the plastid rbcL gene (Doyle et al., 1997; 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu & Chang, 2003), phytochrome nucleotide genes (Lavin et al., 1998), the plastid trnK-matK region (Hu et al., 2000) and the nuclear ITS region (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2002). Molecular data, together with reinterpreted evidence based on chemistry (Evans et al., 1985) and wood anatomy (Gasson et al., 2004), have been the basis for recognising a number of informal suprageneric groupings and for transferring Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe to tribe Brongniartieae (Table 8; Fig. 45).

     The most far-reaching result of the above molecular analyses was that a substantial part of the traditionally circumscribed tribe Phaseoleae is more closely allied to the core-Millettieae than to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade (see page 393). Circumscription of a revised tribe Millettieae is not possible at present until genera are more comprehensively sampled; however, a Millettioid sens. strict. group might be expected to include some genera in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group, Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae, Ophrestiinae and in small part the Erythrininae, tribe Abreae and the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45). The basal millettioid and phaseoloid group comprises 17 genera (94 species) that may belong either in the Millettioids sens. strict. or Phaseoleae sens. lat., or to a clade sister to both these groups (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001). The core-Millettieae clade comprises c. 22 genera and c. 777 spp., with some additional generic segregates being necessary within the ‘canavanine group’ (Evans et al., 1985), to accommodate species of Millettia sens. lat. and Fordia sens. lat., which on the basis of molecular and chemical evidence are excluded from Millettia and Fordia sens. strict.

    Relationships between the major groups of genera centred on Lonchocarpus, Derris, Millettia and Tephrosia remain obscure, and still reflect a geographical bias in segregating them, i.e. distributions are limited largely to the New World in the Lonchocarpus group, and the Old World in the other groups. The suggestion that the Andean South American genus Apurimacia might be sister to the largely Old World Tephrosia rather than to Lonchocarpus (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001) is possibly indicative of other Old World–New World sister groups yet to be found. Further molecular evidence will probably result in an overall reduction in the number of genera recognised, particularly in the Tephrosia and Lonchocarpus groups where various small or monotypic ‘one-organ’ genera may be better placed within larger genera. Ptycholobium, Requienia and Paratephrosia, for example, are difficult to distinguish from Tephrosia, but for the emphasis traditionally placed on their atypical pods.

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as fish poisons, cover crops, livestock fodder, insecticides, ornamentals and for medicine, e.g. T. virginiana (L.) Pers. (goats rue, devil's shoestring, hoary pea) , T. vogelii Hook.f. (fish-poison pea) , T. purpurea (L.) Pers. and T. candida (Roxb.) DC. (white tephrosia)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cook Is., Hawaii, Rodrigues, Seychelles

    Tephrosia Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2013 Gairola, S. [1847], United Arab Emirates K000568942
    Nov 1, 2013 El-Keblawy, A. [1789], United Arab Emirates K000568941
    Bauer [s.n.], Australia K000217125
    Bauer [s.n.], Australia K000217034
    Brown, R. [s.n.], Australia K000217039
    Brown, R. [s.n.], Australia K000217046
    Brown, R. [s.n.], Australia K000217049
    Brown, R. [s.n.], Australia K000217087
    Cunningham, A. [s.n.], Australia K000217132
    Cunningham, A. [s.n.], Australia K000217085
    Cunningham, A. [s.n.], Australia K000217077
    leg. ign. [s.n.], Australia K000216968
    leg. ign. [s.n.], Australia K000217070
    leg. ign. [s.n.], Australia K000217086
    leg. ign. [s.n.], Australia K000216965
    leg. ign. [s.n.], Australia K000217040
    Cunningham, A. [s.n.], Queensland K000217017

    First published in Syn. Pl. 2: 328 (1807)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 104.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • —Brummitt in Kew Bull. 35: 459–473 (1980).
    • in Kew Bull. 35: 459–473 (1980).
    • Brummitt in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér.2, 41: 219–393 (1968)
    • —Brummitt in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér.2, 41: 219–393 (1968)
    • Syn. Pl. 2: 328 (1807), nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • SYN. Pl. 2: 328 (1807), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0