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This genus is accepted, and is native to Europe, Asia-Tropical, Africa, Antarctic, Hawaii, South America, North America, Australasia and Asia-Temperate.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Morphology General Habit
Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, more rarely shrubs, climbing or not, usually with long stout taproots, sometimes rhizomatous Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, more rarely shrubs, climbing or not, usually with long stout taproots, sometimes rhizomatous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate Leaves alternate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary trigonous; styles 3; stigmas 3, penicillate or fimbriate
Distribution
A genus of c. 200 species. Cosmopolitan but mainly in temperate regions, with c. 20 species in southern Africa including several introduced.
Morphology Leaves Ocrea
Ocrea membranous, entire or lacerate. Ocrea membranous, entire or lacerate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, pedicellate, arranged in whorls borne in racemes or panicles. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, pedicellate, arranged in whorls borne in racemes or panicles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth 6-merous, in 2 whorls of 3; outer perianth segments small and thin; inner segments accrescent, becoming enlarged and usually hardened in fruit, ovate or triangular, often reticulate-veined, with the margin entire, wavy or toothed, with or without dorsal tubercles on the midrib near the base. Perianth 6-merous, in 2 whorls of 3; outer perianth segments small and thin; inner segments accrescent, becoming enlarged and usually hardened in fruit, ovate or triangular, often reticulate-veined, with the margin entire, wavy or toothed, with or without dorsal tubercles on the midrib near the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 6, in 2 whorls of 3; anthers basifixed. Stamens 6, in 2 whorls of 3; anthers basifixed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary trigonous; styles 3; stigmas 3, penicillate or fimbriate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nut sharply trigonous, with a woody pericarp, surrounded by the inner accrescent perianth segments. Nut sharply trigonous, with a woody pericarp, surrounded by the inner accrescent perianth segments.

[FTEA]

Polygonaceae, R. A. Graham. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Morphology General Habit
Hermaphrodite or dioecious, usually glabrous herbs, often stout
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracteoles
Bracteoles 1 or 0
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Tepal
Tepals 6, in two series of 3; the outer small, non-accrescent; the inner accrescent, erect, circular, ovate or triangular with the margin entire, wavy or toothed, sometimes winged, and the midrib sometimes swollen to produce a wart-like tubercle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 6, inserted at the base of the perianth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nuts trigonous, enclosed within the inner tepals
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Styles 3; stigmas penicillate or fimbriate.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Herbs, usually glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bisexual or unisexual. Tepals 6, in 2 series of 3, the outer small, the inner much enlarging in fruit, sometimes toothed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 6, inserted at the base of the perianth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles 3; stigmas penicillate or fimbriate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nuts trigonous, enclosed within the inner tepals.
Distribution
Some 300 species, most abundant in north temperate regions.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Morphology Leaves Ocrea
Ocrea membranous, caducous Ocrea membranous, caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers unisexual, the male flowers pedicellate, in terminal and axillary pedunculate clusters, with the female flowers sessile in the axils below, or sometimes in compound inflorescences with suppressed leaves, male flowers above, female below Female flowers urceolate, with an accrescent ovoid tube; perianth segments 2-seriate, accrescent, the inner erect, the outer indurate in fruit with very hard ± spreading spines at the tips; styles 3, dilated and fimbriate at the tip Male flowers: perianth segments 5–6, subequal, free nearly to the base, spreading; stamens 4–6. Male flowers: perianth segments 5–6, subequal, free nearly to the base, spreading; stamens 4–6 Female flowers urceolate, with an accrescent ovoid tube; perianth segments 2-seriate, accrescent, the inner erect, the outer indurate in fruit with very hard ± spreading spines at the tips; styles 3, dilated and fimbriate at the tip. Flowers unisexual, the male flowers pedicellate, in terminal and axillary pedunculate clusters, with the female flowers sessile in the axils below, or sometimes in compound inflorescences with suppressed leaves, male flowers above, female below.
Distribution
A genus of 2 species, one in the Mediterranean region and one in South Africa and Namibia. The latter introduced into East Africa, Madagascar, Australasia and U.S.A. (Florida, California and Hawaii).
Morphology General Habit
Rigid monoecious annual or perennial herbs. Rigid monoecious annual or perennial herbs
Morphology Stem
Stems erect or spreading, much branched, furrowed. Stems erect or spreading, much branched, furrowed
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, petiolate. Leaves alternate, petiolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nut acutely trigonous, free and included in the hardened fruiting perianth. Nut acutely trigonous, free and included in the hardened fruiting perianth.

[FTEA]

Polygonaceae, R. A. Graham. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious herbs, probably annual
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers with 5–6 tepals, free nearly to the base, spreading, subequal Female flowers urceolate, with an accrescent, ovoid tube; tepals 6, arranged in two series, the inner 3 accrescent and erect, the outer 3 accrescent, conjoined, and forming very hard, ± spreading spines at the tips
sex Male
Male flowers with 5–6 tepals, free nearly to the base, spreading, subequal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4–6
sex Female
Female flowers urceolate, with an accrescent, ovoid tube; tepals 6, arranged in two series, the inner 3 accrescent and erect, the outer 3 accrescent, conjoined, and forming very hard, ± spreading spines at the tips
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles 3, terminally dilated and fimbriate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nut acutely trigonous, free within the hardened fruiting perianth.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual herbs, monoecious
Morphology Leaves Ocrea
Ochreae without bristles at the margin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers at base of inflorescence
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Tepal
Tepals 6, free in male flowers, united in female flowers, the outer 3 spinescent and hardened in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4–6
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles 3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nut trigonous, enclosed in the persistent perianth.
Distribution
Two species, the second, E. australis Steinh., mainly in South Africa.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hawaii, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Svalbard, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Angola, Ascension, Bahamas, Bermuda, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Central African Repu, Crozet Is., Cuba, Desventurados Is., Dominican Republic, Easter Is., El Salvador, Fiji, Galápagos, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kerguelen, Leeward Is., Liberia, Macquarie Is., Marion-Prince Edward, Mauritius, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, South Georgia, St.Helena, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Venezuela

Rumex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Strachey, R. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132861
Rico, L. [1790], Armenia K000297283
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Nepal K001132519

First published in Sp. Pl.: 333 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Schuster, T.M., Reveal, J.L., Bayly, M.J. & Kron, K.A. (2015). An updated molecular phylogeny of Polygonoideae (Polygonaceae): relationships of Oxygonum, Pteroxygonum, and Rumex, and a new circumscription of Koenigia Taxon 64: 1188-1208.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 114

Flora Zambesiaca

  • F.T.E.A., Polygonaceae: 5–11 (1958).
  • Graham in F.T.E.A., Polygonaceae: 5–11 (1958).
  • Bot. Not. Suppl., vol. 3, 3: 1–114 (1954).
  • in Bot. Not. Suppl., vol. 3, 3: 1–114 (1954).
  • Candollea 12: 9–152 (1949)
  • in Candollea 12: 9–152 (1949)
  • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 31: 225–283 (1933)
  • in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 31: 225–283 (1933)
  • Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 49, 2: 1–132 (1932)
  • K.H. Rechinger in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 49, 2: 1–132 (1932)
  • Meisner in de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 41–47 (1856).
  • de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 41–47 (1856).
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 156 (1754).
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 156 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.: 333 (1753)
  • Sp. Pl.: 333 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Rechinger in Bot. Not., Suppl. 3:3 (1954).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 156 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 333 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0