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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical America.


Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Evergreen shrubs or small trees
Leaves alternate, simple, hairs usually simple, occasionally branched
Inflorescences usually dense, rarely lax terminal or axillary many-flowered cymes, or reduced to a single flower, subsessile; pedicels erect or pendent, subtended by linear to lanceolate, caducous bracts; flowers slightly zygomophic with bilateral symmetry
Calyx tubular or campanulate, with 5 lobes; usually shorter than corolla tube
Corolla hypocrateriform, basal tube cylindrical straight or slightly curved, dilated above towards five broad recurved lobes with quincuncial-imbricate aestivation, open at mouth which often thickened into fleshy white ring
Stamens four, didynamous, alternating with upper three corolla lobes, usually included, occasionally upper pair exserted, both pairs curved at apex to project anthers towards back of corolla tube; filaments fused to upper quarter of corolla tube, unequal, lower posterior pair shorter than the upper lateral pair, glabrous, becoming thicker and flattened at point of fusion; anthers usually all fertile, rarely upper pair reduced, elongate, medifixed, oblong or reniform, onecelled dehiscing by single slit
Ovary conical to ovoid, bilocular; ovules numerous; disc nectiferous, annular, smooth; style filiform below, erect or curved and broadened beneath the stigma, glabrous, usually included; stigma broadly dilated, shallowly or deeply bilobed or capitate, often surpassed and partially enclosed by upper lateral anthers. Fruit capsular or sub-baccate, fleshy or coriacous, indehiscent or often splitting open by two entire valves, scarcely or partially enclosed by persistent accrescent coriaceous calyx
Seeds deeply reticulate, large, few to many.
The history and classification of this genus together with its inter-generic and inter-specific relationships and the distiguishing morphological features are extensively dealt with by Plowman (1998). The presence, location, degree and type of indumentum can vary greatly in this genus, even in the same species. Moreover, Brunfelsia fruits often appear baccate and have been described as berries in numerous taxonomic descriptions of these species. They are, in fact, capsules which are either indehiscent or split into two smooth or rough valves (cf. Plowman, 1998). Some of the diagnostic features given below have been adapted from Plowman (1998), largely due to the paucity of herbarium material of this genus, not only collected from Africa but also from the Americas. ± 46 species of shrubs and small trees from South and Central America, many of which are cultivated for their ornamental and medicinal value.

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Assam, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Réunion, Tanzania, Uganda, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Brunfelsia Plum. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2000 Claussen, P. [s.n.], Brazil K001073492
Jan 1, 1990 Harley, R.M. [25639], Brazil K001073487
Jan 1, 1990 Harley, R.M. [25639], Brazil K001073489
Martinelli, G. [178], Brazil K001073490
Chagas e Silva, F. [143], Brazil K000982098
Fiaschi, P. [3527], Brazil K001073491
Forzza, R.C. [2912], Brazil K001073488
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132441

First published in Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.


Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Gen. Solanaceae: 82–85 (2001)
  • Fieldiana Bot., n.s. 39: 1–133 (1998);
  • Biol. & Tax. Solanaceae: 475–491 (1979)
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 198 (1852);
  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 87 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 191 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.