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  1. Family: Apocynaceae Juss.
    1. Tabernaemontana Plum. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.


    Apocynaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg & F. K. Kupicha et al. Flora Zambesiaca 7:2. 1985

    Shrubs or trees, repeatedly dichotomously branched and with 2 inflorescences in the forks when flowering (rarely one of the inflorescences not developing).
    Bark with abundant white latex. Branchlets terete or elliptic on section in African species, often sulcate and angular when dried.
    Leaves opposite, those of a pair equal or unequal, petiolate (at least in species of the F.Z. area); petioles of a pair connate into a conspicuous ocrea, with colleters in the axils; lamina broadly to narrowly elliptic.
    Inflorescence distinctly pedunculate, corymbose, lax to congested.
    Bracts de­ciduous, but at least in species of the F.Z. area still present at anthesis.
    Flowers actinomorphic, except for the subequal sepals, fragrant.
    Sepals green or of different colour, almost free.
    Corolla white, pale yellow or mauve (Madagascan spp.), with an often green or greenish tube and a pale yellow throat, thick and carnose or thin; tube twisted, in species of the F.Z. area at least twice as long as the calyx; lobes in bud overlapping to the left and folded inwards, twisted, usually obliquely elliptic, usually curved to the right, spreading and often recurved later.
    Stamens included or less often exserted; filaments reduced to ridges or nearly so; anthers narrowly triangular, acuminate at the sterile apex, sagittate at the base, introrse, dehiscent throughout by a longitudinal slit.
    Ovary composed of two carpels, these barely to distinctly connate at the base and connected at the apex by the style; style often split at the base; disk absent (at least in species of the F.Z. area); clavuncula not coherent with the anthers and therefore the pistil still complete immediately after the corolla is shed.
    Fruit of two free or basally united subglobose, subellipsoid or pod-like carnose carpels (sometimes one remaining smaller or not developing); carpels opening along an adaxial line of dehiscence or not.
    Seeds several or many, enveloped by a thin variously coloured pulpy aril, nearly obliquely ellipsoid, with a deep groove to halfway its width at the hilar side; endosperm ruminate.

    Apocynaceae, E.A. Omino. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

    Shrubs or trees repeatedly dichotomously branched
    Latex present in most parts
    Bark smooth or rough, usually with large lenticels
    Branches with large lenticels and conspicuous leaf scars; branchlets terete, glabrous
    Leaves opposite; petiole glabrous, those of a pair usually connate into a conspicuous ochrea, these frequently widened into intrapetolar stipules, with colleters in axils; blade glabrous on both sides (occasionally pubescent beneath in T. elegans), entire.
    Inflorescence terminal or in forks, corymbose
    Bracts deciduous, with colleters in axils, leaving large scars
    Flowers 5-merous, actinomorphic, sweet-scented
    Sepals imbricate in bud
    Corolla tube thin or thick and fleshy, twisted or not; lobes overlapping to the left, twisted, folded inwards, obliquely ellipsoid and falcate, curved to the right, often auriculate at the left side at the base
    Stamens included; filaments short or reduced to ridges; anthers sessile, narrowly triangular, acuminate at the sterile apex, sagittate at the base, with connectives adnate to the corolla
    Ovary superior, of two carpels, barely to distinctly connate at the base, connate at the apex by the style; pistil head not coherent with anthers, subglobose or cylindrical with 5 suborbicular or elliptic lobes at the apex and an entire undulate or lobed ring at the base
    Fruit of two separate or rarely basally united mericarps, subglobose to pod-like, baccate, dehiscent or not; aril pulpy, white, orange or red
    Seeds brown or black, with a deep groove on the hilar sides; endosperm copious, starchy, white, ruminate; embryo spatulate



    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cook Is., Hawaii, Marquesas

    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Tabernaemontana Plum. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2005 Prance, G.T. [5076], Brazil K000989475
    Aug 1, 2000 Harley, R.M. [11141], Brazil K000989476
    Milliken, W. [863], Sulawesi 64607.000
    Rand, E.S. [6], Brazil K000989478
    Zappi, D.C. [448], Brazil K000989474
    Mbani, J. M. [95], Cameroon K000086224
    Parkinson, C.E. [413], Myanmar Rejoua 14627.000
    Forman, L. [188] Pagiantha 6406.000


    First published in Sp. Pl.: 210 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • —Pichon in Notulae Syst. 13: 230 (1948).

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Leeuwenberg in Adansonia, Sér. 2, 16: 390 (1976).
    • in Mém. Mus. Nation. Hist. Nat., Paris Sér. 2, 27: 225 (1949).
    • Pichon in Not. Syst. 13: 247 (1947).
    • Stapfin, F.T.A. 4, 1: 150 (1902)
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 210 (1753).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Leeuwenberg in Revision Tabernaemontana 1: 1–204 (1991)
    • Sp. Pl.: 210 (1753)


    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew