1. Doronicum orientale Hoffm.

    1. Doronicum orientale is one of the earliest-flowering of the yellow daisies, the flowerheads usually opening in April and May. It grows from a thickened rhizome (underground stem). The softly-hairy leaves appear in February, and the plant becomes dormant by late summer. The flower stems are upright, unbranched, and usually bear a single leaf. The narrow ray florets are lemon-yellow.

[KSP]
General Description
Doronicum orientale is an early-flowering, lemon-yellow daisy, with a single flowerhead on an upright stem, and soft, rounded leaves.

Doronicum orientale is one of the earliest-flowering of the yellow daisies, the flowerheads usually opening in April and May. It grows from a thickened rhizome (underground stem). The softly-hairy leaves appear in February, and the plant becomes dormant by late summer. The flower stems are upright, unbranched, and usually bear a single leaf. The narrow ray florets are lemon-yellow.

Species Profile

Geography and distribution

Native to south-eastern Europe, from Italy, Sicily and the Balkans to the Caucasus and much of Turkey, extending into northern Syria.

Description

A perennial herb up to 140 cm tall. The rhizome is tuberous, branching and shortly creeping to form wide patches. The leaves are mostly basal, broadly ovate, cordate (heart-shaped) at the base, shortly hairy, 6–10 cm long and 5–8 cm wide. The flowering stem is sticky-hairy, up to 60 cm long, with 1 or 2 leaves with amplexicaul (stem-embracing) leaf bases. The flowerhead (capitulum) is solitary, up to 8 cm across, with numerous, narrow ray florets. The fruits have a short pappus.

Uses

Doronicum orientale is cultivated as an ornamental.

It might have been used in herbal medicine in the past, although it could have been confused with Arnica montana (arnica) or Aconitum lycoctonum (wolfsbane), which have both also been known by the common name ‘leopard’s bane’.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Description of seeds:Average 1,000 seed weight = 1.2 gNumber of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:OneComposition values:Average oil content = 38.4%. Average protein content = 20.6%

Cultivation

Doronicum orientale is easily grown in semi-shade in woodland, or under trees, but there are also cultivars which thrive in full sun and are suitable for herbaceous borders. It requires light in early summer and tolerates well-drained, stony ground. Propagation is by division in the autumn. A number of cultivars with subtly different ray floret colours are available.

Illustration from Curtis's Botanical Magazine

This hand-coloured engraving of  Doronicum orientale (as  D. caucasicum) by Sir William J. Hooker (1785-1865) was published in  Curtis’s Botanical Magazine in 1832. Hooker was Professor of Botany at the University of Glasgow, and took over the editorship of  Curtis’s Botanical Magazine in 1827, initially drawing many of the plates himself. When he was appointed as the first Director of Kew in 1841, he brought with him from Glasgow a young artist, Walter H. Fitch, who remained at Kew until his death in 1892, and who was one of the most prolific and accomplished botanical artists of the nineteenth century.

This species at Kew

Doronicum orientale is not currently grown at Kew, but other species of Doronicumcan be seen growing in the Rock Garden and Woodland Garden (around the Temple of Aeolus).

Alcohol-preserved and pressed and dried specimens of Doronicumspecies are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers, by appointment. The details of some of these specimens can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

Distribution
Italy, Turkey
Ecology
Woodland and shady, rocky places.
Conservation
Widespread and not considered to be threatened.
Hazards

Doronicum species are poisonous to cattle and pigs.

Images

Common Names

English
Leopard's bane

Doronicum orientale Hoffm. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Commentat. Soc. Phys.-Med. Univ. Litt. Caes. Mosq. 1: 8. 1808 Pentas plantarum rariorum Iberiae 8. 1808.

Literature

  • [1] The Plant List (2010). Doronicum orientale.
  • [2] Fernández, I.A. (2003). Systematics of Eurasian and North African Doronicum (Asteraceae: Senecioneae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 319-389.
  • [3] Phillips, R. & Rix, M. (1991). Perennials, Volume 1. Pan Books, London.
  • [4] Edmondson J. (1975). Doronicum. In: Flora of Turkey, Volume 5, ed. P.H. Davis, pp. 137-145.
  • [5] Hooker, W.J. (1832). Doronicum caucasicum Bieb. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 59: tab. 3143.

Sources

International Plant Names Index
The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
[A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
[B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
[C]