1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Chamaecrista Moench

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Herbs (perennial or monocarpic), shrubs or (occasionally) trees: many are weeds of open sites and colonisers of disturbed areas, roadsides, river margins, cultivated areas and grassland
    Ecology
    Many on sand, (including coastal dunes), some in semi-arid areas, some in seasonally waterlogged areas, in S America common in wooded grassland (cerrado, savanna) and on stony or sandy grassland (campo), very few in true rain forest
    Distribution
    a secondary centre in Africa with 36 spp. (mainly widespread in Zambezian, Sudanian, Somalia-Masai, Afromontane and Zanzibar-Inhambane regions), 3-4 extending to Madagascar; 6 spp. endemic in Madagascar and 1 in Aldabra; 12 native in Australia, 5 spp. endemic in India, 3 (-4) spp. in continental SE Asia, Java and New Guinea, 1 sp. endemic in the Philippines, the genus extending into Korea and Japan; several spp. widely introduced as pasture herbs, or inadvertently as weeds
    Note
    One of three genera in subtribe Cassiinae; divided into 6 sections in the New World (Irwin & Barneby, 1981; 1982); see under Cassia for comments on phylogenetic placement; Corby (1974) and Sprent (2001) noted that while species of Cassia and Senna do not nodulate, those of Chamaecrista do; 24 spp. described as new to the Neotropics since 1982

    Tribe Cercideae is basally branching in the Leguminosae (Bruneau et al., 2001; Herendeen et al., 2003a), as predicted by Wunderlin et al. (1981), and Cercis is the most basally branching genus in the tribe. While much taxonomic work has been carried out on the tribe in the past thirty years (e.g., Larsen et al., 1980, 1984; Wunderlin, 1976, 1979; Wunderlin et al., 1981, 1987; Zhang, 1995; Vaz, 2003; Vaz & Tozzi, 2003), few species have been included in phylogenetic analyses and inter- and intra-generic relationships are still largely unresolved with the exception of Cercis (Hao et al., 2001; Davis et al., 2002b).

    Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981) divided the tribe into two subtribes, Cercidinae and Bauhiniinae, based on seed, floral and fruit characters. Walpers (1842) had already down-ranked Bauhinieae Benth. (1840) to subtribal status, thus the combination Bauhiniinae (Benth.) Wunderlin (1979) is superfluous. Polhill (1994) kept the Cercideae unchanged with two subtribes and five genera. While the Cercidinae contains three small distinct genera, Cercis, Griffonia and Adenolobus, the Bauhiniinae houses the monospecific Madagascan genus Brenierea and the large, diverse pantropical genus Bauhinia sens. lat. which has been segregated into as many as twenty-six genera by various authors (Wunderlin, 1976).

    While many of the Bauhinia segregates are based on minor morphological differences, others are distinguished morphologically by a suite of characters. Britton and Rose (1930), in their account of the Caesalpiniaceae for the North American Flora, divided Bauhinia into several segregate genera, including Schnella Raddi which here is treated as a synonym of Phanera, but might prove to be distinct as indicated in recent molecular analyses by Forest (unpublished data). Britton and Killip (1936) recognised Schnella as distinct from Bauhinia in Colombia. De Wit (1956), treating ‘Malaysian Bauhinieae’, recognised Bracteolanthus, Lysiphyllum, Gigasiphon, Piliostigma, Lasiobema and Phanera as separate genera and this was largely followed by subsequent flora writers in Africa and New Guinea (e.g., Brenan, 1967; Coetzer & Ross in Ross, 1977; Verdcourt, 1979). Others have retained a more inclusive Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987), e.g., Macbride (1943: 207–220) for Peru; Larsen et al. (1980) for the Flora of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam; Larsen et al. (1984) for the Flora of Thailand; Chen (1988) for China, and Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) in Flora Malesiana. Zhang (1995) published a morphological cladistic analysis of the series of Bauhinia sens. lat., but few species of Bauhinia have been included in molecular studies. It remains equivocal as to whether Bauhinia sens. lat. is monophyletic, but preliminary molecular results indicate that some elements should be reinstated as distinct genera (Bruneau et al., in prep.; Forest, unpubl.). This runs contrary to the findings of Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) who concluded “that Bauhinia in the sense of Linnaeus, Bentham, De Candolle, Taubert and Hutchinson is an evolutionary unit and a very natural genus”. Larsen and Larsen also noted that Bauhinia sens. lat. presents a reticulate pattern of variation across its pantropical range (this apparently conflicting somewhat with its status as a “natural genus”). While this is undoubtedly true if the genus is considered as all-inclusive, recent studies of legume distributions in general (Schrire et al., this volume and 2005) have revealed repeated patterns of generic distribution which appear to be duplicated by at least some of the segregates of Bauhinia. If these segregates are recognised as distinct genera (as several are in this treatment) then the reticulate pattern of variation of Bauhinia is far less pronounced. More sampling at the species level in molecular analyses and more morphological studies are needed across the full pantropical range of Bauhinia sens. lat. before inter- and intra-generic relationships are clearly resolved. In the current account genera that have been recognised as distinct from Bauhinia in at least one flora treatment that post-dates De Wit (1956) have been treated as separate genera, especially where these are supported by the preliminary results from a chloroplast trnL (intron and spacer) sequence analysis (Forest, unpubl.). The reader’s attention is also alerted to the detailed infra-generic division of Bauhinia by Wunderlin et al. (1987) in their reorganisation of the Cercideae which also forms a sound basis for sampling in future studies.

    Palynological studies of Bauhinia (Larsen, 1975; Schmitz, 1977; Ferguson & Pearce, 1986) have all stressed the considerable variation in pollen morphology within the genus sens. lat. and there are clear correlations between pollen exine ornamentation, floral morphology and pollination. It remains to be seen just how closely these correspond to evolutionary relationships of species. Nevertheless, Schmitz (1977) made several new combinations in segregate genera of Bauhinia based on palynological type. These included new names in Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Pauletia, Perlebia and Phanera (Pauletia and Perlebia here considered as synonyms of Bauhinia). Zhang (1995), who analysed morphologically the series of Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1987), concluded that while some supraspecific segregates of the genus were supported, none of the subgenera appeared to be monophyletic. Several realignments were proposed.

    The Cercideae as presented here includes 12 genera and (322)–335–(348) species. This treatment differs from Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) and Polhill (1994) in that Barklya, Gigasiphon, Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Phanera, Piliostigma and Tylosema are considered distinct from Bauhinia. While some of these may well be reincluded in Bauhinia after further study, yet other genera may be reinstated from within Bauhinia. Bracteolanthus, treated as distinct by De Wit (1956), is here included in Lysiphyllum following Wunderlin et al. (1987), while Barklya, considered congeneric with Bauhinia by Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) is considered distinct following George (1998b) and Forest (unpublished data). The reinstatement of Lasiobema appears least well supported (Forest, unpubl.).

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock & R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes woody at the base.
    Stem
    Stems usually hairy with short curved (crisped) hairs and/or straight spreading hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves paripinnate, usually with numerous leaflets; stipules narrowly triangular, appressed, persistent; petiole usually with a gland towards the top; rachis channelled above, the margins of the channel sometimes fused to form a ridge or crest; leaflets usually oblong, asymmetric.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary or supra-axillary, few-flowered; pedicels slender, often elongating after flowering, bracteate near the apex.
    Calyx
    Calyx lobes subequal, narrowly ovate, acuminate.
    Corolla
    Petals yellow, delicate, obovate to oblong.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5–10, subequal, dehiscing by slits.
    Ovary
    Ovary oblong, hairy, with many ovules.
    Fruits
    Pods linear, elastically dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds brown, shiny, rhomboid, flattened, usually with lines of small pits on the testa.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Some species widely used as traditional medicines in Africa, especially as purgatives and for treating wounds and sores; in Senegal a paste of Ch. absus (L.) Irwin & Barneby, mixed with butter, is used as a suppository for piles, also used for syphilis; the seeds contain a toxalbumin, absin, similar to abrin from Abrus precatorius L. (tribe Abreae) and this is thought to be the active substance used for eye conditions such as cataract; Ch. mimosoides (L.) Greene is used as a tea substitute in China and Japan, and is used against snake bite and scorpion sting in Tanzania

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rhode I., Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Bismarck Archipelago, Canary Is., Fiji, Kazan-retto, Laccadive Is., Madagascar, Maine, Maldives, Mauritius, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Primorye, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Solomon Is., Tonga, Transcaucasus, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Chamaecrista Moench appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 10, 2003 Pennington, R.T. [219], Brazil K000206302
    Apr 1, 2003 Giulietti, A.M. [2198], Bahia K000840039
    May 1, 2001 Salas M., S.H. [3335], Mexico K000680425
    Jan 1, 1995 Silva, G.P. de [1324], Goiás K000839980
    Jan 1, 1995 Silva, G.P. de [1393], Bahia K000839981
    Jan 1, 1993 Balam, F. [490], Mexico K000680429
    Dec 1, 1992 Sandoval, E. [861], El Salvador K000680426
    Nov 18, 1991 Alves, R.J.V. [1627], Minas Gerais K000839976
    Raynal, A. [15926], Guadeloupe K000680427
    Hatschbach, G. [79439], Minas Gerais K000840022
    Hatschbach, G. [80102], Minas Gerais K000840034
    Brenan, J.P.M. [14446], Mexico K000680431
    Brenan, J.P.M. [14481], Mexico K000680433
    Gardner [3688], Brazil K000840074
    Martinelli, G. [16127], Piauí K000839988
    Silva, J.M. [5688], Minas Gerais K000840023
    Silva, J.M. [5900], Minas Gerais K000840035
    Lima, H.C. [2979], Espírito Santo K000839982
    Chan, C. [3969], Mexico K000680430
    Hughes, C.E. [1785], Mexico K000680428
    Giulietti, A.M. [13599], Minas Gerais K000840012
    Souza, V.C. [5449], Bahia K000840007
    Souza, V.C. [5449], Bahia K000840008
    Souza, V.C. [5449], Bahia K000840009
    Queiroz, L.P. [9189], Bahia K000840061
    Queiroz, L.P. [3841], Bahia K000840037
    Guedes, M.L. [3044], Bahia K000840062
    Guedes, M.L. [3044], Bahia K000840063
    Cavalcanti, T.B. [1478], Goiás K000840071
    Barbosa, E. [2038], Mato Grosso do Sul K000840033
    Arbo, M.M. [7439], Bahia K000839991
    Silva, G.P. [2515], Bahia K000840060
    Laurênio, A. [13], Pernambuco K000839999
    Woodgyer, E. [2505], Bahia K000840036
    Ribas, O.S. [7631], Minas Gerais K000840021
    Ribas, O.S. [7797], Minas Gerais K000840024
    Ribas, O.S. [7802], Minas Gerais K000840025
    Fonseca, M.L. [1825], Goiás K000840067
    Fonseca, M.L. [1792], Goiás K000840069
    Brooks, R.R. [499], Goiás K000840016
    Teixeira, I.M. [10], Brazil K000840045
    Pott, A. [12508], Mato Grosso do Sul K000840038
    Sandoval [19], El Salvador K000680567
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], São Paulo K000840073
    Forzza, R.C. [4539], Goiás K000839990
    Forzza, R.C. [2856], Rio de Janeiro K000839979
    Cordeiro, J. [2811], Tocantins K000840032
    Thomas, W.W. [11265], Bahia K000839978
    Zappi, D.C. [11303], Minas Gerais K000840048
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000839989
    Gibbs, P. [2371], Minas Gerais K000839983
    Menandro, M.S. [100], Maranhão K000839998
    Silva, A.S.L. [1818], Brazil K000840065
    Albuquerque, V.R. [20], Brazil K000839992
    Lima, V.L.G.F. [39], Brazil K000840004
    Peters, J.N. [2], Brazil K000839974
    Buzzi, M. [20], Brazil K000840044
    Gomide, C.C.C. [5], Brazil K000840046
    Saint Pierre, M. [1065], Mexico K000680423
    Elorsa C., M. [3656], Mexico K000680424

    First published in Methodus: 272 (1794)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 636–895 (1982).
    • Meth. Pl. Hort. Bot. Marburg.: 272 (1794).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/