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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Some 250 species, mainly in the tropics but extending to temperate areas.
Habit
Trees and shrubs, dioecious, usually with prickles on stems and leaf-rhachides, often persisting as woody prickle-tipped bosses on trunk
Leaves
Leaves alternate, imparipinnate; leaflets dotted with translucent glands
Flowers
Flowers in terminal or axillary panicles, 4–5-merous, with distinct calyx and petals (in Somalia) or a single whorl of perianth-lobes Female flowers with rudimentary staminodes and 1–2 free carpels on short gynophore; ovules 2 per carpel; styles lateral-Fruit of 1–2 subglobose, gland-pitted follicles Male flowers with 4–5 stamens and a vestigial pistillode
Seeds
Seeds subglobose, black, shiny.

[FTEA]

Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Habit
Deciduous or evergreen aculeate shrubs or trees; trunk usually with bosses
Leaves
Leaves imparipinnate, alternate; leaflets (1–)2–12(or more)-jugate, opposite or alternate1 sessile to petiolulate, usually ± asymmetric, crenulate, serrate or entire, dotted with pellucid glands
Inflorescences
Inflorescence of terminal and/or axillary panicles or of racemes borne at the base of new branches below the leaves
Flowers
Flowers unisexual by abortion, usually on separate plants, 4–5-merous Male flowers: stamens opposite the sepals; gynophore short; ovary vestigial Female flowers: staminodes rudimentary; gynophore short; ovary of 1–2 carpels (1 sometimes aborts), each 1-locular and with 2 subapical collateral pendulous ovules (1 aborts); style terete, oblique, incurved; stigma discoid or subcapitate
Calyx
Sepals usually persistent and very small
Corolla
Petals valvate or slightly imbricate
Male
Male flowers: stamens opposite the sepals; gynophore short; ovary vestigial
Female
Female flowers: staminodes rudimentary; gynophore short; ovary of 1–2 carpels (1 sometimes aborts), each 1-locular and with 2 subapical collateral pendulous ovules (1 aborts); style terete, oblique, incurved; stigma discoid or subcapitate
Fruits
Fruit a subglobose dehiscent 1-seeded follicle or pair of follicles, glandular-foveolate
Seeds
Seed subglobose, black, shiny.

[FZ]

Rutaceae, F. A. Mendoça. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Habit
Deciduous or evergreen aculeate trees or shrubs; trunk usually with bosses.
Leaves
Leaves alternate, imparipinnate; leaflets (1) 2–12 (or more)-jugate, opposite or alternate, sessile or petiolulate, usually ± asymmetric; lamina crenulate, serrate or entire, dotted with pellucid glands (sometimes only in the marginal sinuses).
Inflorescences
Inflorescence of terminal or axillary and terminal panicles, or of racemes borne at the base of new branches below the leaves.
Flowers
Flowers unisexual by abortion, dioecious (in our area), 4–5-merous. Male flowers: stamens opposite the sepals; gynophore short; ovary vestigial. Female flowers: staminodes vestigial, opposite the sepals (in our area); gynophore short; ovary of 1 carpel, or rarely of 2 carpels of which 1 aborts (in our area), 1-locular, with 2 subapical collateral pendulous ovules (1 aborted); style terete, shorter than the ovary, oblique, incurved; stigma discoid or subcapitate.
Calyx
Sepals very small, usually persistent.
Corolla
Petals valvate or slightly imbricate, much longer than the sepals.
Fruits
Fruit a globose or subglobose dehiscent 1 -seeded follicle, stipitate or subsessile, glandular-foveolate, usually with the seed hanging from the detached placenta during dehiscence.
Seeds
Seed 4 globose, black, shiny.

[FZ]

Rutaceae, F. A. Mendoça. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Habit
Sarmentose or climbing shrubs; branches, leaves and inflorescences aculeate.
Leaves
Leaves alternate, 3-fbliolate.
Inflorescences
Inflorescence of axillary and terminal panicles.
Flowers
Flowers small, 5-merous, unisexual by abortion. Male flowers: stamens 5, inserted at the base of a short gynophore, opposite the sepals; filaments filiform; anthers introrse; ovary vestigial, conical. Female flowers: staminodes filiform; ovary on a short gynophore, 5–7-locular, with 2 ovules in each loculus; stigma disk-shaped, 5-lobed.
Calyx
Sepals united to form a cupuliforrn 5-dentate calyx.
Corolla
Petals 5, free, imbricate.
Fruits
Fruit globose, drupaceous with woody endocarp, 3–7-locular; loculi 1-seeded.
Seeds
Seeds reniform, oblong; testa thick; cotyledons linear.

[FTEA]

Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Habit
Woody scramblers; branches usually armed with prickles
Leaves
Leaves trifoliolate, alternate, sometimes aculeate
Inflorescences
Inflorescence of axillary and terminal panicles
Flowers
Flowers unisexual by abortion, 5-merous, small Female flowers: staminodes filiform; ovary on a short gynophore, 5–7-locular, with 2 ovules in each locule; stigma 3–5-lobed, disk-shaped Male flowers: stamens 5, inserted at the base of a short gynophore, opposite the sepals; filaments filiform; ovary vestigial
Calyx
Sepals united to form a cupuliform 5-dentate calyx
Corolla
Petals 5, free, imbricate
Male
Male flowers: stamens 5, inserted at the base of a short gynophore, opposite the sepals; filaments filiform; ovary vestigial
Female
Female flowers: staminodes filiform; ovary on a short gynophore, 5–7-locular, with 2 ovules in each locule; stigma 3–5-lobed, disk-shaped
Fruits
Fruit globose, drupaceous, with woody endocarp, 3–7-locular, locule 1-seeded
Seeds
Seed oblong-reniform; testa thick; cotyledons linear.

Native to:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Xinjiang, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

North Caucasus, Uzbekistan

Zanthoxylum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5218], Cameroon K000338418
Pennington, T.D. [12482], Peru 54606.000
DuPuy, B. [MB 359], Madagascar 63482.000
Aug 1, 1975 Letouzey, R. [14233], Cameroon Fagara K000094305
Gomes e Sousa, A. [4662], Mozambique Fagara 22131.000

First published in Sp. Pl.: 270 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Reynel, C. (2017). Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) Flora neotropica, monograph 117: 1-263. New York.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

Literature

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 130 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 270 (1753)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0