1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Sterculia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Southern America, Australasia, Northern America and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Sterculiaceae, Martin Cheek & Laurence Dorr; Nesogordonia, Laurence Dorr, Lisa Barnett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

    Habit
    Monoecious, evergreen or deciduous shrubs and trees.
    Stem
    Stem often producing a gummy exudate when wounded; bud-scales present and persistent
    Leaves
    Leaves entire, digitately lobed or divided; lobes or leaflets 3–7, entire; stipules usually highly caducous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences usually paniculate, rarely spike-like, often on leafless stems; bracts usually caducous
    Flowers
    Flowers with a single united perianth whorl, purplish red, green or yellow, usually with five reflexed lobes, rarely cohering at the tip Male flowers with 8–10 anthers each with two separate thecae, ± randomly dispersed (not in discrete ranks as in Cola) in a globose head, ovary entirely absent, borne on a long, often curved androphore Female flowers with anthers at base of subsessile apocarpous ovary; carpels 5, uniseriate
    Male
    Male flowers with 8–10 anthers each with two separate thecae, ± randomly dispersed (not in discrete ranks as in Cola) in a globose head, ovary entirely absent, borne on a long, often curved androphore
    Female
    Female flowers with anthers at base of subsessile apocarpous ovary; carpels 5, uniseriate
    Fruits
    Fruit carpels separated, developing into dehiscent follicles, each globose to cylindrical, often rostrate and stipitate, pericarp leathery and flexible to stout and woody, the valves opening slightly or completely, outside often red or pink, inside pale yellow or white, dehiscing along the line of the placenta which usually covered in urticating hairs
    Seeds
    Seeds leaden black, often with a yellow or red aril near the seed stalk
    Figures
    Fig 1, p. 6.
    [FZ]

    Sterculiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Trees with entire, lobed or occasionally digitate leaves.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences paniculate or rarely racemose, terminal or axillary, appearing before or with the leaves.
    Flowers
    Flowers bisexual or unisexual, monoecious or dioecious. Male flower: anthers c. 10–20 in a capitate or capitate-globose cluster on a slender androphore. Female flower: ovary of 4–5 coherent carpels with 2-? ovules per carpel; often borne on a short gynophore with vestigial anthers at its base; styles coherent; stigma peltate or 4–5-lobed.
    Calyx
    Calyx 4–5 (6)-lobed.
    Corolla
    Petals 0.
    Carpels
    Carpels separating at maturity and becoming follicular, usually rather woody or leathery.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1-?.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    In East Africa the bark of many species is used locally as a source of fibre for ropes and string, and the seeds when roasted are often used as food.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cuba, Hawaii, Jamaica, Puerto Rico

    Sterculia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Greenway, P.J. [1044], Tanzania 15393.000
    Bullock, A.A. [3064], Tanzania 15392.000
    Dalziel, J.M., Gambia 22102.000
    Tanner, R. [436], Tanzania 15394.000
    Thomas, D.W. [4945], Cameroon K000094709
    Thomas, D.W. [4945], Cameroon K000094710
    Fay, J.M. [8459], Central African Republic 63367.000
    Coode, M.J.E. [5675], Philippines 51097.000
    Utteridge, T.M.A. [388], New Guinea 64409.000
    Heringer, E.P. [17988], Brazil K001214104
    Krukoff, B.A. [8844], Brazil K001214103
    Cummins, H.A. [169], Ghana K000230059 isotype
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [18148], Brazil K001214105

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1007 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 1: 215.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 438(1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 1007 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L, Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 438 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1008 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0