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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Note

Widely known as the Vicieae, the correct name for this tribe is Fabeae (see Greuter et al., 2000, Articles 19.4 and 18.5), since it must be based on the name of the type genus of the family, Faba Mill. (= Vicia L.). This does not reflect on the names Leguminosae and Papilionoideae (see introduction) whose use as alternative names for Fabaceae and Faboideae respectively is sanctioned in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al., 2000; Article 18.5).

Fabeae is a well-defined tribe, forming part of the ‘temperate epulvinate series’ (Polhill, 1981a). It contains five genera, of which two (Lathyrus and Vicia) are large. The tribe as a whole is centred in the Irano-Turanian Region of the E Mediterranean. Lathyrus and Vicia, each with about 160 species, have very similar distributions centred on the Mediterranean but extending throughout Europe, N Asia and N and tropical E Africa, with secondary centres in N America and S America. One large group of species, some in Vicia and some in Lathyrus, are superficially extremely similar and can only be distinguished by technical characters of the style. This group was in the past recognised as the genus Orobus L. (Kupicha, 1981a). Lens has 4–6 species and Pisum 2 or 3. Both include important crop plants and, perhaps because of this, their taxonomy is controversial. Both are E Mediterranean genera with outlying species. The monospecific genus Vavilovia, sometimes included in Pisum, is confined to montane habitats in W Asia.

Kupicha (1981a) was unable to suggest a closest relative of the tribe; she had previously (Kupicha, 1977) excluded Abrus (Abreae) and Cicer (Cicereae) from it. The morphological analysis of Chappill (1995) placed Fabeae (as Vicieae) in a group with Astragalinae, Galeginae, Loteae, Coronilleae, Cicereae and Trifolieae. Doyle (1995) included these subtribes and tribes (except Loteae and Coronilleae) in a clade characterised by the loss of the inverted repeat (the IRLC), with Carmichaelieae (here included in Galegeae sens. lat.), Cicereae, Galegeae, Hedysareae, some Millettieae, and Trifolieae. More recent work (Wojciechowski et al., 2000) places Fabeae at the heart of a Vicioid clade that includes Trifolieae (q.v.) and Cicereae as well as Galega — a fragment of a paraphyletic Galegeae. Fabeae (as Vicieae) appears embedded within Trifolieae as sister to Trifolium.

In the analyses of Steele & Wojciechowski (2003) and Wojciechowski et al. (2004), Fabeae (as Vicieae) forms a clearly monophyletic group in which Pisum is sister to Lathyrus, and these two emerge as a well supported clade within a paraphyletic Vicia. A subclade of Vicia species is sister to Lens. Within Lathyrus, the cpDNA restriction site phylogeny of Asmussen & Liston (1998) agrees in general with dividing the genus into sections previously recognised using classical taxonomic methodology (e.g., Kupicha, 1983).

The publications of the Vicieae Database Project (e.g., Allkin et al., 1983 a & b) provide basic information for the whole tribe. In this treatment the Fabeae is considered to comprise 5 genera and c. 329 species (Fig. 57).

Habit
Herbs (mostly climbing)
Ecology
Temperate, mediterranean and tropical montane grassland, shrubland and woodland
Distribution
Mostly N temperate: Europe and Asia (c. 110 spp., principally from the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian regions, some spp. to China, Korea and Japan); N to E Africa (c. 15 spp.); additional centres in N America (c. 17 spp., including 1 sp. in Hawaii) and temperate S America (c. 18 spp.)

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, mostly climbing by means of tendrils, less often straggling or suberect
Morphology Leaves
Leaves mostly paripinnate, the rhachis terminating in a branched or simple tendril or bristle, or, rarely, some or all of the leaves imparipinnate; leaflets in mostly numerous, less often in 1–3, pairs, entire or toothed; stipules semisagittate, often fimbriate or toothed; stipels absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, racemose, or flowers sometimes solitary or few in the leaf-axils; bracts generally small and deciduous; bracteoles absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed; tube often oblique and asymmetrical; lobes subequal or the upper pair shorter and partly joined
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla small to medium-sized, often blue, purple or yellow; standard obovate or oblong, emarginate, tapering into a broad claw; wings obliquely obovate or oblong, usually but not always adherent to the keel
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free or ± united with the tube; anthers uniform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary subsessile or stipitate, 2–many-ovuled; style terete or compressed, seldom flattened at the apex, pubescent or pilose all round or on lower side only or with an apical tuft of hairs, rarely glabrous; stigma terminal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods oblong to linear, compressed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds globose or rarely compressed; funicle dilated into a thin aril.

[FZ]

Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, mostly climbing by means of tendrils, less often straggling or erect.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually paripinnate, the rhachis terminating in a tendril or bristle, rarely imparipinnate; leaflets often numerous, less often in 1–3 pairs, entire or toothed, folded flat lengthwise in bud; stipules usually small, semi-sagittate, often fimbriate or toothed, herbaceous; stipels absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary racemes or fascicles or solitary; bracts usually small, deciduous; bracteoles absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed; tube often asymmetrical; lobes subequal or the upper two shorter and partly joined.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla small to medium-sized, blue, mauve, purple, yellow or white; standard obovate or oblong, very often adhering to the keel; keel obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free or ± united with the others; anthers uniform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary stipitate or subsessile, 2–many-ovuled; style distally pubescent or pilose all round or on the lower side only, rarely glabrous; stigma terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod oblong to linear, compressed, dehiscent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds globular or compressed.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Note

Widely known as the Vicieae, the correct name for this tribe is Fabeae (see Greuter et al., 2000, Articles 19.4 and 18.5), since it must be based on the name of the type genus of the family, Faba Mill. (= Vicia L.). This does not reflect on the names Leguminosae and Papilionoideae (see introduction) whose use as alternative names for Fabaceae and Faboideae respectively is sanctioned in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al., 2000; Article 18.5).

Fabeae is a well-defined tribe, forming part of the ‘temperate epulvinate series’ (Polhill, 1981a). It contains five genera, of which two (Lathyrus and Vicia) are large. The tribe as a whole is centred in the Irano-Turanian Region of the E Mediterranean. Lathyrus and Vicia, each with about 160 species, have very similar distributions centred on the Mediterranean but extending throughout Europe, N Asia and N and tropical E Africa, with secondary centres in N America and S America. One large group of species, some in Vicia and some in Lathyrus, are superficially extremely similar and can only be distinguished by technical characters of the style. This group was in the past recognised as the genus Orobus L. (Kupicha, 1981a). Lens has 4–6 species and Pisum 2 or 3. Both include important crop plants and, perhaps because of this, their taxonomy is controversial. Both are E Mediterranean genera with outlying species. The monospecific genus Vavilovia, sometimes included in Pisum, is confined to montane habitats in W Asia.

Kupicha (1981a) was unable to suggest a closest relative of the tribe; she had previously (Kupicha, 1977) excluded Abrus (Abreae) and Cicer (Cicereae) from it. The morphological analysis of Chappill (1995) placed Fabeae (as Vicieae) in a group with Astragalinae, Galeginae, Loteae, Coronilleae, Cicereae and Trifolieae. Doyle (1995) included these subtribes and tribes (except Loteae and Coronilleae) in a clade characterised by the loss of the inverted repeat (the IRLC), with Carmichaelieae (here included in Galegeae sens. lat.), Cicereae, Galegeae, Hedysareae, some Millettieae, and Trifolieae. More recent work (Wojciechowski et al., 2000) places Fabeae at the heart of a Vicioid clade that includes Trifolieae (q.v.) and Cicereae as well as Galega — a fragment of a paraphyletic Galegeae. Fabeae (as Vicieae) appears embedded within Trifolieae as sister to Trifolium.

In the analyses of Steele & Wojciechowski (2003) and Wojciechowski et al. (2004), Fabeae (as Vicieae) forms a clearly monophyletic group in which Pisum is sister to Lathyrus, and these two emerge as a well supported clade within a paraphyletic Vicia. A subclade of Vicia species is sister to Lens. Within Lathyrus, the cpDNA restriction site phylogeny of Asmussen & Liston (1998) agrees in general with dividing the genus into sections previously recognised using classical taxonomic methodology (e.g., Kupicha, 1983).

The publications of the Vicieae Database Project (e.g., Allkin et al., 1983 a & b) provide basic information for the whole tribe. In this treatment the Fabeae is considered to comprise 5 genera and c. 329 species (Fig. 57).

Mayer & Bagga (2002) find strong support for a monophyletic Lens, with L. nigricans (M.Bieb.) Godr. being basally branching, and L. odemensis Ladiz. most likely sister to L. culinaris Medik.
Habit
Herbs (sometimes climbing)
Ecology
Woodland, mediterranean shrubland and tropical altimontane grassland; weedy
Distribution
Mediterranean region to W Asia

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Slender suberect or spreading annual herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves mostly paripinnate, the rhachis terminating in an awn or a simple, rarely branched, tendril, rarely imparipinnate; leaflets in 2-several pairs, entire; stipules linear to ovate, entire, dentate or semisagittate; stipels absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, few-flowered, racemose or flowers solitary; bracts small, deciduous; bracteoles absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed; lobes elongate, subulate, subequal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla small, white, blue or violet; standard obovate or almost round, the claw short and broad; wings obliquely obovate or oblong, attached to the keel; keel shorter than the wings, somewhat inflated and longitudinally plicate, the apex acute or shortly beaked
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free; anthers uniform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary subsessile, 2-ovuled; style somewhat flattened, with a longitudinal row of short hairs on the inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod strongly compressed, 1–2-seeded, the valves mostly thin and papery
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds distinctly compressed; funicle dilated into a thin aril, separated from mature seed.

[FZ]

Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

Morphology General Habit
Erect or spreading annual herbs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually paripinnate, the rhachis terminating in a simple or rarely a branched tendril, or an awn, rarely imparipinnate; leaflets 2–several on each side of the rhachis, opposite or alternate, entire, folded flat lengthwise in bud; stipules linear to ovate or semi-sagittate, entire or dentate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, few-flowered, racemose or flowers solitary; bracts small, deciduous; bracteoles absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed; lobes subequal, subulate, at least twice as long as the tube.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla small, white, bluish or violet; standard obovate to almost round, cuneate to the base; wings oblong or obovate, adnate to the keel; keel shorter than the wings.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Vexillary stamen free; anthers uniform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary subsessile, 2-ovuled; style somewhat flattened, distally pubescent on the inner side.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod strongly compressed, 1–2-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds lenticular, compressed.

[LOWO]
Use
Many species are widely introduced and naturalised (some are weeds); vetches are used extensively as cover crops, for forage, hay, silage, erosion control and green manure; V. faba L. (broad bean, fava bean) is a major pulse crop, also eaten green, with many cultivars in the trade; V. narbonensis L. is a minor pulse crop; several other species (e.g., V. sativa L., V. ervilia (L.) Willd. and V. villosa Roth) are cultivated as fodder; V. sativa (common vetch) is also used for medicine; in various species occasional toxicity (causing favism) is found from amino glucosides in seeds

[LOWO]
Use
The importance of L. culinaris as a cultivated crop - and the search for wild relatives - has led to numerous taxonomic studies and often to conflicting conclusions. Lens culinaris (lentil) is a major food (pulse) crop and is the only cultivated species in the genus; also used for starch extracted from seeds, flour and dhal; species are used as fodder, green manure and for medicine

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf States, Hawaii, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Malawi, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Québec, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Sahara, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Angola, Bermuda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Chad, Chatham Is., Connecticut, Costa Rica, Delaware, Dominican Republic, Falkland Is., Free State, Galápagos, Haiti, Jamaica, Jawa, Kermadec Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Maine, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Réunion, South Australia, St.Helena, Svalbard, Tasmania, Vermont, Victoria, Western Australia, Zimbabwe

Vicia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Rico, L. [1802], Armenia K000661344
Rico, L. [1308], Bolivia K000295151
Rico, L. [1193], Bolivia K000295110
Rico, L. [1328], Bolivia K000295128
Rico, L. [1695], Armenia Lens K000297329

First published in Sp. Pl.: 734 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • WCVP (2021). World Checklist of Vascular Plants, version 2.0. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://wcvp.science.kew.org/ Retrieved 28 April 2021

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 327 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.: 734 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 327 (1754)
  • Sp. PI.: 734 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Legumes of the World Online
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0