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  1. Family: Polygalaceae Hoffmanns. & Link
    1. Genus: Polygala Tourn. ex L.
      1. Polygala paniculata L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 0 - 3380 m.
    Habit
    Herb.
    Distribution
    Native from Colombia.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3380 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Polygalaceae, Jorge Paiva. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2007

    Type
    Type: Jamaica, Browne s.n. (LINN!, holo.)
    Habit
    Annual herb, 15–50 cm tall, often branched from the base
    Stem
    Stems slender, glandular-pubescent
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, but the lower ones in 1–2 verticels of 4–5 leaves, petiolate, linear to linear-lanceolate, 10–25 × 1–2 mm, acute, base cuneate, glabrous; petiole 0.5 mm, glabrous or slightly glandular-pubescent
    Flowers
    Flowers pink, in terminal racemes (occasionally some lateral) 2–5(–9.5) cm long; rachis glabrous; bracts linear, 0.6–0.8 mm long, glabrous and caducous; bracteoles linear, 0.2 mm long, glabrous and caducous; pedicels 0.7–1 mm, glabrous
    Calyx
    Posterior sepal linear, 1.2–1.3 mm long, glabrous; wing sepals ovate-elliptic, 2–2.5 × 0.7–1 mm, glabrous; anterior sepals linear, 1.2 mm long, glabrous, free
    Corolla
    Upper petals obovate, 2.5 mm long; carina 1–1.5 mm long; crest 1 mm long, 3–4-fimbriate
    Stamens
    Stamens 8
    Fruits
    Capsule obliquely obovate-elliptic in outline, 1.75 × 1–1.3 mm, unwinged, glabrous
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, 1.2–1.5 × 0.5 mm, sparsely pubescent; caruncle reduced to the caruncular appendages up to as long as half of the length of the seed
    Figures
    Fig 4: 1, p 10
    Ecology
    Cultivated land, grassland, path- and road-sides; 350–1700 m
    Note
    C. van der Meijden [Polygalaceae in Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, 10(3): 455–539 (1988)] and L. Bernardi [Cavanillesia altera 1: I-VIII; 1–456 (2000)] considered P. fernandesiana Paiva, from Equatorial África (Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon and Central-African Republic) as a synonyms of P. paniculata L. Indeed they look like the same species but P. fernandesiana has smaller capsules (1.2–1.5 × 0.75 mm) and seeds (0.7–0.8 × 0.4 mm) than P. paniculata (1.7–2 × 1.1–1.2 mm and 1.3–1.5 × 0.5 mm) and the seeds of the former do not have caruncular appendages while the latter has two caruncular appendages up to as long as half of the length of the seed. P. paniculata is usually a ruderal plant in Africa, while P. fernandesiana grows in grassland.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: K7 T3 Range: Widespread in the tropical regions of the World; introduced from South America
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 1000 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]
    Use
    This species is used as a medicinal plant against snake bites and blenorrhagias (which is the reason why this is the species of Polygala with the largest distribution).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Cook Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., India, Jawa, Kenya, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Marquesas, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Niue, Philippines, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    Spanish
    Sarpoleta, colagoge, hoja de higo, ipeacuana, lanillo, yerba de la leche.

    Other Data

    Polygala paniculata L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2013 Heringer, E.P. [3287], Brazil K001130001
    Sep 1, 2006 Bernadus Bala Ola [XI 09], Malaysia K000610263
    Apr 1, 2002 Harley, R.M. [22737], Bahia K000012603
    Feb 1, 1999 Spruce, R. [6044], Ecuador K000202387
    Feb 1, 1999 Spruce, R. [5035], Ecuador K000202388
    Feb 1, 1999 Spruce, R. [5035], Ecuador K000202389
    Feb 1, 1999 Spruce, R. [6044], Ecuador K000202390
    Feb 1, 1999 Purdie [669], Ecuador K000590919
    Harley, R.M. [18731], Bahia K000012596
    Harley, R.M. [16132], Bahia K000012597
    Harley, R.M. [20159], Bahia K000012598
    Harley, R.M. [17460], Bahia K000012602
    Philcox, D. [4848], Brazil K001133322
    Pedersen, T.M. [7803], Brazil K001133327
    Mathews [1193], Peru K000590920 Unknown type material
    Lindeman, J.C. [1686], Brazil K001133325
    Hall [s.n.] K001133298
    Krapovickas, A. [42123], Brazil K001133315
    Ratter, J.A. [3104], Brazil K001133321
    Ratter, J.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001133324
    Ratter, J.A. [955], Brazil K001133326
    Smith, H.H. [575], Colombia K000590918
    Oliveira, M. [107], Brazil K001133303
    Irwin, H.S. [19528], Brazil K001133318
    Irwin, H.S. [31717], Brazil K001133323
    Rodal, M.J.N. [258], Brazil K001133305
    Rodrigues, E. [59], Brazil K001133301
    Lira, S.S. [70], Brazil K001133304
    Heringer, E.P. [18170], Brazil K001133337
    Heringer, E.P. [1017], Brazil K001130002
    Eiten, G. [6486], Brazil K001133314
    Eiten, G. [7220], Brazil K001133317
    Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000012595
    Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000012599
    Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000012600
    Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000012604
    Smith, L.B. [1222], Brazil K001133306
    Claussen, P. [s.n.], Brazil K001133331
    Sellow, F. [362] K001133329
    Burchell, W.J. [714], Brazil K001133300
    Blanchet, J.S. [s.n.], Bahia K000012601
    André [4850], Brazil K001133308
    Graham [s.n.] K001133299
    Gillivray, J.M. [291], Brazil K001133334
    MacFadyen [s.n.], Jamaica K000590921
    Williams, L.O. [5997], Brazil K001133312
    Melo, M.R.C.S. [168], Brazil K001133302
    Araújo, C. [s.n.], Brazil K001133319
    Mexia, Y. [4362], Brazil K001133311
    Glaziou, A. [12432], Brazil K001133313
    Swainson, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001133297
    Gardner [55], Brazil K001133336
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001133296
    s.coll. [19], Brazil K001133316
    s.coll. [55] K001133330
    Burchell [1744], Brazil K001133332
    Burchell [714], Brazil K001133333
    Martius [s.n.], Brazil K001133328
    Martius [81], Brazil K001133335
    Glaziou [10270], Brazil K001133309
    Glaziou [10270], Brazil K001133310
    Guilhermin, M. [28], Brazil K001133307
    Ludtke, R. [170], Brazil K001133320
    Jan 1, 2007 Schomburgk, R.H. [670], Guyana Polygala tenella K001130080
    Apr 1, 2002 Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia Polygala tenella K000012574
    Apr 1, 2002 Falcão, J.I.A. [1170], Pernambuco Polygala tenella K000012630
    Blanchet [2706], Brazil Polygala tenella K001130079
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil Polygala tenella K001130078

    Bibliography

    First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1154 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
    • Pastore, J.F.B. (2014). Saint-Hilaire's Polygalaceae Phytotaxa 158: 201-223.
    • Lüdtke, R. & al. (2013). O Gênero Polygala L. (Polygalaceae) na região Sul do Brasil Hoehnea 40: 1-50.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Yang, T.Y.A. & Chen, C.F. (2013). A revision of the genus Polygala L. (Polygalaceae) in Taiwan Taiwania 58: 156-162.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa 322: 1-283.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Paiva, j. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygalaceae: 1-60.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or
    • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Lüdtke, R. & al. (2013). O Gênero Polygala L. (Polygalaceae) na região Sul do Brasil Hoehnea 40: 1-50.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Yang, T.Y.A. & Chen, C.F. (2013). A revision of the genus Polygala L. (Polygalaceae) in Taiwan Taiwania 58: 156-162.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa 322: 1-283.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Paiva, j. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygalaceae: 1-60.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. & De Wilde, W.J.J.O. (eds.) (1984-1989). Flora Malesiana 10: 1-748. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Cavanillesia Altera 1: 13, tabs. 1–3 (2000).
    • Fontqueria 50: 154, t. 25/a (1998)
    • Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 1154 (1759)

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/