1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Stachytarpheta Vahl

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America, Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Stamens
    Fertile stamens 2, anterior, inserted at the upper half of corolla tube, included; staminodes 2 or 0; filaments short; anthers with linear-oblong divaricate thecae
    Ovary
    Ovary 2-locular, dorsally compressed, on a short gynophore; loculi lateral, each with 1 erect anatropous; style filiform with a capitate or subcapitate stigma
    Distribution
    A genus of about 112 species
    Calyx
    Calyx persistent, closely appressed, not enlarging in fruit; tube narrow, dorsally compressed, 5-ribbed, often plicate, membranous or herbaceous, very shortly 4–5-dentate with subequal teeth, or bifid with 2-dentate lobes or entire. Calyx persistent, closely appressed, not enlarging in fruit; tube narrow, dorsally compressed, 5-ribbed, often plicate, membranous or herbaceous, very shortly 4–5-dentate with subequal teeth, or bifid with 2-dentate lobes or entire
    Corolla
    Corolla blue, purple, red or white, funnel-shaped or hypocrateriform; tube cylindrical, narrow, straight or curved, pubescent inside at the throat; limb ± spreading, oblique, 5-lobed, the lobes broad, subequal or unequal. Corolla blue, purple, red or white, funnel-shaped or hypocrateriform; tube cylindrical, narrow, straight or curved, pubescent inside at the throat; limb ± spreading, oblique, 5-lobed, the lobes broad, subequal or unequal
    Androecium
    Fertile stamens 2, anterior, inserted at the upper half of corolla tube, included; staminodes 2 or 0; filaments short; anthers with linear-oblong divaricate thecae.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular, dorsally compressed, on a short gynophore; loculi lateral, each with 1 erect anatropous; style filiform with a capitate or subcapitate stigma.
    Fruits
    Fruit a schizocarp; schizocarp oblong, included within the persistent calyx, splitting at maturity into 2 mericarps; mericarps hard, shortly beaked, striate on the back and usually pitted near the apex. Fruit a schizocarp; schizocarp oblong, included within the persistent calyx, splitting at maturity into 2 mericarps; mericarps hard, shortly beaked, striate on the back and usually pitted near the apex
    Seeds
    Seeds without endosperm. Seeds without endosperm.
    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, glabrous to densely hairy. Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, glabrous to densely hairy
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, serrate, dentate or crenate, usually petiolate. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, serrate, dentate or crenate, usually petiolate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an elongate terminal spike; bracts present. Inflorescence an elongate terminal spike; bracts present
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile, crowded, each partially sunk in a hollow in the rhachis and subtended by an acuminate bract. Flowers sessile, crowded, each partially sunk in a hollow in the rhachis and subtended by an acuminate bract
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, glabrous to densely hairy
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or alternate, entire or toothed
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile, crowded in elongate terminal spikes, the rhachis hollowed beneath each flower; bracts present
    Calyx
    Calyx persistent, closely adpressed, not enlarging in fruit; tube narrow, 4–5-lobed or-toothed or with 2 2-fid lobes
    Corolla
    Corolla coloured, hypocrateriform; tube cylindrical; limb equally or usually subequally 5-lobed, ± irregular
    Stamens
    Stamens 2, anterior plus 2 staminodes inserted in the upper part of the tube; fertile stamens with divergent anther-thecae, ± included
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular with 1 erect anatropous ovule in each locule; style filiform with capitate or subcapitate stigma
    Fruits
    Fruit included in the calyx, splitting into 21-seeded linear-oblong mericarps
    Seeds
    Seeds linear, exalbuminous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Leeward Is., Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Extinct in:

    Cape Verde

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hawaii, India, Kazan-retto, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niue, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Queensland, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Zimbabwe

    Stachytarpheta Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1997 Guedes, M.L. [PCD2010], Brazil K000944302
    Apr 14, 1995 Bernacci, L.C. [1426], Brazil K000944301
    Carvalho, A.M. [277], Brazil K000944297
    Guedes, M.L. [PCD1423], Brazil K000944303
    Callejas, R. [1549], Brazil K000944296
    Noblick, L.R. [4445], Brazil K000944295
    s.coll. [146], Brazil K000944300
    Gardner [4338], Brazil K000944298
    Gardner [4338], Brazil K000944299

    First published in Enum. Pl. Obs. 1: 205 (1804)

    Accepted by

    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Brenan in Kew Bull. 5: 223 (1950) .4
    • —F.T.A. 5: 283
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Atkins in Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 463 (2004).
    • Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII : 463 (2004).
    • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 57 : 87–111 (1984).
    • R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 57: 87–111 (1984).
    • Enum. Pl. 1: 205 (1804) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 57: 87–111 (1984), nom. conserv.
    • Moldenke in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 246–267 (1983)
    • Enum. Pl. 1: 205 (1804)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0