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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. & S. Brazil to S. Central Paraguay.

    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    An undershrub 1-2 ft. high
    Spines
    Armed with nearly straight spines
    Flowers
    White flowers 1/2 in. diam. and smooth brown-yellow nodding fruits.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type: Jacquin s.n. (W; K, photo), fide D'Arcy in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 711 (1974) in adnot.
    General
    Perennial herb or small shrub, up to 1. 2(2) m high, unpleasantly smelling, usually copiously armed; hairs simple, pluricellular, ± spreading or appressed, of various lengths, a few stellate with a long central ray and short lateral rays, also shorter apically glandular hairs and ± sessile glands; prickles stramineous or yellowish, often violaceous at the base, shining, 1–18 mm long, 0.5–1. 5 mm wide at the base, laterally sub-compressed, slender, subulate, straight or more rarely rather recurved, spreading or rarely slightly reflexed, striate-sulcate and glabrous
    Branches
    Branches sometimes purple tinged, with short hairs, long tapered hairs, some glandular hairs and abundant slender prickles Branches sometimes purple tinged, with short hairs, long tapered hairs, some glandular hairs and abundant slender prickles.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, the upper ones often appearing geminate; petiole 1–9.5 cm long; lamina membranous, 2.5–16 × 2.5–19 cm, broadly ovate, sub-orbicular or ovate-cordate, sometimes ovate-oblong, base ± cordate and ± unequal-sided, apex acute or somewhat obtuse to rounded, coarsely serrate or irregularly lobed, often ± deeply, the lobes often acute, but also obtuse or rounded, occasionally acuminate, sinuate-dentate to deeply lobulate, rarely ± entire, conspicuously but rather thinly covered with long simple hairs, smaller hairs and glands above, more densely so beneath, the hairs whitish or rarely yellowish, and also generally numerous straight prickles, mainly on midrib and nerves, on both surfaces Leaves solitary, the upper ones often appearing geminate; petiole 1–9.5 cm long; lamina membranous, 2.5–16 × 2.5–19 cm, broadly ovate, sub-orbicular or ovate-cordate, sometimes ovate-oblong, base ± cordate and ± unequal-sided, apex acute or somewhat obtuse to rounded, coarsely serrate or irregularly lobed, often ± deeply, the lobes often acute, but also obtuse or rounded, occasionally acuminate, sinuate-dentate to deeply lobulate, rarely ± entire, conspicuously but rather thinly covered with long simple hairs, smaller hairs and glands above, more densely so beneath, the hairs whitish or rarely yellowish, and also generally numerous straight prickles, mainly on midrib and nerves, on both surfaces.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes lateral, leaf-remote, unbranched, racemiform, 2–3.5 cm long, 2–7-flowered, ± densely villous to pilose, rarely with purplish hairs, ± prickly, usually the lowest flower(s) more prickly, hermaphrodite and fertile, occasionally flowers solitary; peduncle none or almost so Cymes lateral, leaf-remote, unbranched, racemiform, 2–3.5 cm long, 2–7-flowered, ± densely villous to pilose, rarely with purplish hairs, ± prickly, usually the lowest flower(s) more prickly, hermaphrodite and fertile, occasionally flowers solitary; peduncle none or almost so.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5(6)-merous. Flowers 5(6)-merous; pedicels 8–28 mm long, slender but thickened distally, ± densely villous to pilose with simple, spreading hairs, and also shorter, apically glandular hairs intermixed, ± prickly in fertile flowers and ± unarmed in sterile ones, in fruit elongated to 60 mm, erect to deflected.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 8–28 mm long, slender but thickened distally, ± densely villous to pilose with simple, spreading hairs, and also shorter, apically glandular hairs intermixed, ± prickly in fertile flowers and ± unarmed in sterile ones, in fruit elongated to 60 mm, erect to deflected
    Calyx
    Calyx 3–7 mm long, 4–10 mm across, campanulate to cupular, ± deeply lobed, very accrescent, moderately or shortly villous or pilose and ± prickly in fertile flowers; lobes unequal, 2–4 × 0.8–2 mm, triangular to linear-lanceolate, acuminate, reflexed, in fruit enlarged to 8 × 5 mm and concealing it only at the base when ripe Calyx 3–7 mm long, 4–10 mm across, campanulate to cupular, ± deeply lobed, very accrescent, moderately or shortly villous or pilose and ± prickly in fertile flowers; lobes unequal, 2–4 × 0.8–2 mm, triangular to linear-lanceolate, acuminate, reflexed, in fruit enlarged to 8 × 5 mm and concealing it only at the base when ripe.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or whitish, occasionally suffused with mauve or purple, rotate or rotate-stelliform, with purple hairs; limb 10–22 mm across; lobes 6–10 × 2.5–5 mm, lanceolate, acuminate, with long simple hairs and also short apically glandular hairs intermixed outside, glabrous inside, reflexed Corolla white or whitish, occasionally suffused with mauve or purple, rotate or rotate-stelliform, with purple hairs; limb 10–22 mm across; lobes 6–10 × 2.5–5 mm, lanceolate, acuminate, with long simple hairs and also short apically glandular hairs intermixed outside, glabrous inside, reflexed.
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 1–2 mm long; anthers 5.5–7 mm long, lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong in outline, manifestly cordate at the base Stamen filaments 1–2 mm long; anthers 5.5–7 mm long, lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong in outline, manifestly cordate at the base.
    Ovary
    Ovary 2 × 1. 5–2 mm, ovoid or globose, with minute-stipitate glands ± dense mainly upwards and a few simple, short hairs near the base.
    Style
    Style 6–10 mm long, somewhat exceeding the stamens in fertile flowers, straight, glabrous or with few short hairs at the base
    Fruits
    Fruit somewhat shining, green and white or greenish-cream marbled or patterned to pale or dirty-yellow when ripe, 2–3 cm in diameter, globose, glabrous Fruit somewhat shining, green and white or greenish-cream marbled or patterned to pale or dirty-yellow when ripe, 2–3 cm in diameter, globose, glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds ± numerous, pale fuscescent to brownish, sub-shining, (2)2.5–4.5 × 2–3 mm, compressed, reniform, elliptic or sub-circular in outline, ± smooth, manifestly reticulate all over, the margins sometimes thickened but not forming a wing Seeds ± numerous, pale fuscescent to brownish, sub-shining, (2)2.5–4.5 × 2–3 mm, compressed, reniform, elliptic or sub-circular in outline, ± smooth, manifestly reticulate all over, the margins sometimes thickened but not forming a wing.
    Ecology
    Wet and dry forest, riverine forest, generally at the edges and in associated bushland and grassland, also in disturbed places along roads and in plantations; 1000–2400 m.
    Distribution
    Zimbabwe Zambia Mozambique Malawi ZAM C, ZAM E, ZIM E, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ S Probably native to southern Africa, now widely distributed in tropical and southern Africa, recorded from Togo eastwards to Sudan and southwards throughout East Africa to Cape, and also from Dem. Rep. Congo and Angola, more rarely in the New World, record
    Habit
    Perennial herb or small shrub, up to 1.2(2) m high, unpleasantly smelling, usually copiously armed; hairs simple, pluricellular, ± spreading or appressed, of various lengths, a few stellate with a long central ray and short lateral rays, also shorter apically glandular hairs and ± sessile glands; prickles stramineous or yellowish, often violaceous at the base, shining, 1–18 mm long, 0.5–1.5 mm wide at the base, laterally sub-compressed, slender, subulate, straight or more rarely rather recurved, spreading or rarely slightly reflexed, striate-sulcate and glabrous.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2 × 1.5–2 mm, ovoid or globose, with minute-stipitate glands ± dense mainly upwards and a few simple, short hairs near the base; style 6–10 mm long, somewhat exceeding the stamens in fertile flowers, straight, glabrous or with few short hairs at the base.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated in Vienna, Jacquin s.n. (W, holo., iso., photos!) fide D’Arcy in Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 60: 711 (1973) in adnot.
    Habit
    Annual or short-lived perennial herb or shrub to 3(–5) m high, branches often spreading, sometimes procumbent; mature stems brown, younger stems villous with spreading simple eglandular hairs to 2 mm mixed with short and long spreading purple glandular-headed hairs and shortly-stalked brown glands scattered throughout, glabrescent apart from scattered shortly-stalked glands; always covered with dense spreading or recurved acicular prickles to 6 mm long, often blackish
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, sometimes opposite above, membranaceous, dark green above, pale green below and often with prominent brown veins, broadly ovate to palmatifid, usually wider than long, 6–25 × 6–20 cm, bases cuneate to cordate, often oblique, margins deeply sinuate-dentate with 3–4 antrose acute biserrate lobes to 6 cm deep on either side, apices acute; both surfaces with green or purple acicular prickles on midribs and main veins, conspicously hispid with long simple spreading eglandular hairs, denser on the midribs and veins, often mixed with glandular hairs and sometimes also with sessile stellate hairs; petioles 2–12 cm long, with scattered acicular prickles to 2 cm
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences lateral, extraaxillary, sessile, 2–4(–6)-flowered umbellate cymes; pedicels erect to spreading, 1–2.2 cm long in flower, with glandular- and eglandular hairs mixed with sessile glands, woody, recurved and 1–3 cm long in fruit, with scattered acicular prickles to 4.5 mm
    Calyx
    Calyx green, campanulate to cupular, 4–7.5 mm long, densely sericeus externally with long eglandular and shorter glandular hairs, sessile glands and acicular prickles to 4.5 mm long, glabrescent internally; lobes narrowly triangular, (2.5–)3.5–6 × 1–2.5 mm, acute to acuminate, adherent becoming reflexed and 4–10 × 3–5 mm in fruit. Corolla white, cream, pale mauve to purple, often with purple veining and lobe tips, stellate, 1.6–2.6(–4) cm diameter, tube 1–2 mm long, glabrous; lobes lanceolate, 8–10(–14) × 3–5 mm, acute, glabrous to pubescent externally with eglandular and glandular hairs, glabrous internally, reflexed after anthesis. Stamens usually equal, sometimes slightly unequal; filaments white to pale yellow, free for 1–2.2 mm, glabrous; anthers yellow to brown, poricidal, 5.5–7 × 1.2–2 mm, usually connivent
    Ovary
    Ovary brownish, 1.2–2 × 1.7–2 mm, covered with small glands, becoming glabrous, bilocular; style white, straight, linear, glabrous, 3 mm and included or 7–9.5 mm and exserted up to 2 mm; stigma green, capitate, occasionally clavate, 0.5–0.8 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Berries smooth, usually conspicuously veined with light to dark green stripes when young, becoming uniformly cream to yellow when mature, globose to ovoid, 1.2–4 cm diameter, glabrous, pericarp leathery
    Seeds
    Seeds often > 100 per berry, brown, obovoid, orbicular, 2–3.2(–4.5) × 1.8–3(–3.6) mm, not winged but rounded (not flattened) when fully viable, reticulate-foveolate; sclerotic granules absent.
    Ecology
    Moist and evergreen dry forest ( Olea- Teclea, Podocarpus-Juniperus, TabernaemontanaNeoboutonia) including margins and clearings, Acacia-woodland, swamp edges, stream-sides, thickets, bushland, grassland, pasture; 1350–2750 m
    Note
    Bitter (1923) placed S. aculeatissimum, along with three other species, into his new section Simplicipilum Bitter which he differentiated from species in the section Leptostemonum by their simple, long erect hairs [though these are often interspersed with scattered stellate hairs in specimens of S. aculeatissimum]. This species is thought to be native to Brazil (cf. Whalen (1984) and Nee (1991)). However, although Don (1837) recorded it as native to tropical America (and Ceylon) and Dunal (1852) to Mexico and Ceylon, Bitter (1923) along with many other authors (e.g. Polhill (1961), Heine (1963), Bukenya & Hall (1988), Gonçalves (2005) and Friis (2006)) considered the species to be native to southern Africa from where it has become widely distributed throughout tropical and southern Africa. Jaeger (1985) initially suggested that the widespread occurrence of S. aculeatissimum in Africa and its comparative scarcity in the New World supported this, though he went on to propose that its occurrence as a weed of secondary vegetation in Africa was suggestive of its introduction via trade routes from the New World. Jaeger & Hepper (1986) then included S. aculeatissimum under African introductions reporting that it had been present in Africa for a long time, achieving a very wide distribution in Afromontane habitats throughout the Continent. The species is often found in forest clearings, in rough or rocky ground and in secondary vegetation, sometimes associated with damp or marshy habitats. This species apparently exhibits considerable morphological variability throughout its native distribution. It is characterised by a covering of vicious acicular green or purple prickles, which are dense on all stems and branches – even to the plant base – and scattered on the petioles, leaf laminas and calyces. Those on the stems are of variable lengths but much shorter than those found on the leaves. However, two Maitland specimens from Uganda completely lacked prickles but are morphologically similar in all other characters. The striking pubescence is often visible to the naked eye especially on the leaves which appear ‘silky’ above. The hairs themselves vary considerably in their density, lengths and glandulosity between different parts of the plants, and the glands themselves result in the stems, leaves and inflorescence parts appearing purple. Variations in prickle abundance and hair lengths have also been reported between lowland and montane plants (cf. Bukenya & Hall (1988)). Leaves on Kenyan specimens seem to be smaller than those found in Tanzania. The plants are said to have an extremely unpleasant odour. Only one to three fruits mature on each infructescence. The seeds are generally small (2–3 × 2 mm), rounded and not winged; however, two Tanzanian specimens (from T 2 and T 7) had larger seeds (4–4.5 × 3.1–3.6 mm), but were otherwise similar to S. aculeatissimum. The flowers of this species seem to be heterostylous; Polhill ( in sched.) noted that only one flower opens at a time and that the styles in basal flowers were longer. Many East African herbarium specimens have been identified as S. capsicoides; this is a distinct species which only rarely occurs in East Africa and is distinguishable from S. aculeatissimum through its winged seeds and orange fruits. Dunal differentiated var. hispidissimum from S. aculeatissimum purely on the basis of its indumentum being hispid rather than villose; such a distinction was not evident from the holotype. However, the holotype specimen comprises an apical fragment lacking fully open mature leaves. Although covered with a dense pubescence its composition together with the overall morphology of the specimen conforms to the variability exhibited by S. aculeatissimum. Bitter used prickle posture and length, indumentum density and hair colour, and leaf lobing to differentiate his Rwandan variety dolichoplum from S. aculeatissimum. These are all characters which are extremely variable in this species, and although type material has not yet been located, this variety is considered synonymous with the latter. The protologue, the Kew isosyntype and digital images of the syntypes leave little doubt that S. angustispinosum is a synonym of S. aculeatissimum. De Wildeman (1914) discussed the similarity of his new species with the latter but, referring to Wrights’ (1906) description, considered the two to be sufficiently different to warrant the description of a new species. The roots and leaves of S. aculeatissimum are reportedly toxic to horses and cattle (Verdcourt & Trump, 1969).
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T2 T3 T 4 , T6 T7 Range: India, Singapore and Malaysia, tropical South America, southern USA, West Indies Range: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Sudan, Ethiopia, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Paraguay

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Angola, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Ghana, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Liberia, Louisiana, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mississippi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Pennsylvania, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Carolina, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Tibet, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2012 Hooker, J.D. [14], India K000546077 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 1993 Bridson, D.M. [28], Kenya K000658622
    Jan 1, 1990 Hepper, F.N. [1949], Cameroon K000028660
    Jan 1, 1990 Dusén, P. [9513], Brazil K001058018
    Jan 1, 1990 Ujor, E.U. [FHI 30333], Cameroon K000028630
    Oct 1, 1959 Maitland, T.D. [1745], Cameroon K000028631
    Oct 1, 1959 Maitland, T.D. [1745], Cameroon K000028632
    Nov 1, 1958 Seret [1099], Congo, DRC K000414036 syntype
    Jul 3, 1905 Gillett, J.B. [3203], South Africa K000658740
    Jul 3, 1905 Bally, P.R.O. [4849], Kenya K000658592
    Jul 3, 1905 Bally, P.R.O. [3620], Kenya K000658597
    Jul 3, 1905 Bally, P.R.O. [8296], Kenya K000658610
    Jul 3, 1905 Bally, P.R.O. [7784], Kenya K000658611
    Jul 3, 1905 Bally, P.R.O. [8296], Kenya K000658617
    Jul 3, 1905 Bally, P.R.O. [2350], Tanzania K000658630
    Jul 3, 1905 Deighton, F.C. [1782], Sierra Leone K000658476
    Jul 3, 1905 Deighton, F.C. [2635], Sierra Leone K000658479
    Jul 3, 1905 Polhill, R. [1505], Tanzania K000658641
    Jul 3, 1905 Polhill, R. [1505], Tanzania K000658642
    Jul 3, 1905 Fanshawe, D.B. [7304], Zambia K000658670
    Jul 3, 1905 Jaeger, P. [8407], Sierra Leone K000658473
    Jul 3, 1905 White, F. [3812], Zambia K000658666
    Jul 3, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4985], Kenya K000658594
    Jul 3, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4985], Kenya K000658595
    Jul 3, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4913], Kenya K000658620
    Jul 3, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [7353], Malawi K000658655
    Jul 3, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [7338], Malawi K000658659
    Jul 3, 1905 Myers, J.G. [11101], Sudan K000658563
    Jul 3, 1905 Napier, E.R. [381], Kenya K000658616
    Jul 3, 1905 Napier, E.R. [5898], Kenya K000658619
    Jul 3, 1905 Morton, J.K. [SL-3667], Sierra Leone K000568481
    Jul 3, 1905 Morton, J.K. [SL-3145], Sierra Leone K000658474
    Jul 3, 1905 Morton, J.K. [SL-2691], Sierra Leone K000658475
    Jul 3, 1905 Newbould, J. [4596], Tanzania K000658576
    Jul 3, 1905 Gilbert, M.G. [4855], Kenya K000658586
    Jul 3, 1905 Pegler, A. [142], South Africa K000658733
    Jul 3, 1905 Maitland, T.D. [681], Uganda K000658591
    Jul 3, 1905 Stolz, A. [1552], Tanzania K000658635
    Jul 3, 1905 Stolz, A. [1552], Tanzania K000658636
    Jul 3, 1905 Stolz, A. [1552], Tanzania K000658637
    Jul 3, 1905 Stolz, A. [1552], Tanzania K000658638
    Jul 3, 1905 Stolz, A. [1552], Tanzania K000658639
    Jul 3, 1905 Dawe, M.T. [763], Uganda K000658590
    Jul 3, 1905 Hutchinson, J. [4552], South Africa K000658730
    Jul 3, 1905 Hutchinson, J. [2227], South Africa K000658738
    Jul 3, 1905 Hutchinson, J. [2227], South Africa K000658739
    Jul 3, 1905 Stauffer, H.U. [265], Congo K000658519
    Jul 3, 1905 Brummitt, R.K. [8590], Malawi K000658662
    Jul 3, 1905 Brummitt, R.K. [15093A], Malawi K000658664
    Jul 3, 1905 Tuley, P. [628], Nigeria K000658485
    Jul 3, 1905 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [2170], Côte d'Ivoire K000658482
    Jul 3, 1905 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [10235], Cameroon K000658601
    Jul 3, 1905 Chapman, J.D. [2832], Nigeria K000658484
    Jul 3, 1905 Friis, I. [2247], Ethiopia K000658564
    Jul 3, 1905 Scheepers, J.C. [538], South Africa K000658741
    Jul 3, 1905 Galpin, E.E. [14039], South Africa K000658744
    Jul 3, 1905 Ebba, T. [547], Ethiopia K000658565
    Jul 3, 1905 Faden, R.B. [68/565], Kenya K000658613
    Jul 3, 1905 Faden, R.B. [413], Kenya K000658618
    Jul 3, 1905 Biegel, H.M. [2429], Zimbabwe K000658673
    Jul 3, 1905 Jaeger, P.M.L. [2], Kenya K000658598
    Jul 3, 1905 Wild, H. [4431], Zimbabwe K000658671
    Jul 3, 1905 Semsei, S.R. [3953], Tanzania K000658627
    Jul 3, 1905 Luke, Q. [6859], Tanzania K000658624
    Jul 3, 1905 Goyder, D.J. [3564], Zambia K000658667
    Jul 3, 1905 Goyder, D.J. [3564], Zambia K000658668
    Jul 3, 1905 Goyder, D.J. [3564], Zambia K000658669
    Jul 3, 1905 Lovett, J.C. [1727], Tanzania K000658631
    Jul 3, 1905 Harley, G.W. [s.n.], Liberia K000658472
    Jul 3, 1905 Nicholas, A. [2033], South Africa K000658731
    Jul 3, 1905 Luke, P.A. [3892], Kenya K000658599
    Jul 3, 1905 Moll, E.J. [3452], South Africa K000658723
    Jul 3, 1905 Bamps, P. [55], Congo K000658605
    Jul 3, 1905 Oldeman, R.A.A. [23], Côte d'Ivoire K000658483
    Jul 3, 1905 Grimshaw, J.M. [94570], Tanzania K000658625
    Jul 3, 1905 Grimshaw, J.M. [94192], Tanzania K000658626
    Jul 3, 1905 Burchell, W.J. [3239], South Africa K000658724
    Jul 3, 1905 Burchell, W.J. [3239], South Africa K000658725
    Jul 3, 1905 Cooper, T. [1147], South Africa K000658726
    Jul 3, 1905 Cooper, T. [1126], South Africa K000658727
    Jul 3, 1905 Cooper, T. [1026], South Africa K000658728
    Jul 3, 1905 Phillipson, P.B. [1198], South Africa K000658735
    Jul 3, 1905 MacOwan, P. [s.n.], South Africa K000658750
    Jul 3, 1905 Tessmann, G. [648] K000658602
    Jul 3, 1905 Rogers, F.A. [10008], Congo K000658529
    Jul 3, 1905 Rogers, F.A. [18078], South Africa K000658736
    Jul 3, 1905 Medley Wood, J. [4515], South Africa K000658749
    Jul 3, 1905 West, O. [1148], South Africa K000658732
    Jul 3, 1905 Dieterlen, A. [887] K000658721
    Jul 3, 1905 Dieterlen, A. [887] K000658748
    Jul 3, 1905 Thomas, N.W. [4213], Sierra Leone K000658477
    Jul 3, 1905 Thomas, N.W. [2946], Sierra Leone K000658480
    Jul 3, 1905 Pawek, J. [7374], Malawi K000658658
    Jul 3, 1905 Bos, J.J. [1047], South Africa K000658737
    Jul 3, 1905 Salubeni, A.J. [512], Malawi K000658663
    Jul 3, 1905 Sanane, M. [1398], Tanzania K000658582
    Jul 3, 1905 Kerfoot, O. [1987], Kenya K000658612
    Jul 3, 1905 Phillips, E. [1267], Malawi K000658654
    Jul 3, 1905 Phillips, E. [4292], Malawi K000658657
    Jul 3, 1905 Gilliland, H.B. [1037], Zimbabwe K000658672
    Jul 3, 1905 Macuacua, L. [1481], Mozambique K000658665
    Jul 3, 1905 Shabani, S. [333], Tanzania K000658640
    Jul 3, 1905 Drège, J.F. [s.n.], South Africa K000658743
    Jul 3, 1905 D'Arcy, W.G. [8857], Rwanda K000658603
    Jul 3, 1905 Chapama, H.T. [429], Malawi K000658660
    Jul 3, 1905 Renvoize, S.A. [1925], Tanzania K000658581
    Jul 3, 1905 Kimeu, J. [KARI23/02], Kenya K000658588
    Jul 3, 1905 Purseglove, J.W. [3155], Uganda K000658587
    Jul 3, 1905 Purseglove, J.W. [1413], Uganda K000658589
    Jul 3, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], South Africa K000658734
    Jul 3, 1905 McClean, A.P.D. [55], South Africa K000658720
    Jul 3, 1905 Fourcade, G.H. [643], South Africa K000658722
    Jul 3, 1905 Lebrun, J.P. [4746], Congo K000658604
    Jul 3, 1905 Tweedie Mrs [715], Kenya K000658585
    Jul 3, 1905 Connell, M.E. [s.n.], South Africa K000658729
    Jul 3, 1905 Linden, L. van der [321], Malawi K000658661
    Jul 3, 1905 Richards, H.M. Mrs [23316], Tanzania K000658569
    Jul 3, 1905 Richards, H.M. Mrs [23830], Tanzania K000658571
    Jul 3, 1905 Richards, H.M. Mrs [26566], Tanzania K000658573
    Jul 3, 1905 Richards, H.M. Mrs [8683], Tanzania K000658628
    Jul 3, 1905 Richards, H.M. Mrs [13844], Tanzania K000658629
    Jul 3, 1905 Maas Geesternanus, R.A. [5608], Kenya K000658614
    Jul 3, 1905 Arnold, M.N.M. [s.n.R], South Africa K000658745
    Jul 3, 1905 Gbile, E.C. [62860], Nigeria K000568486
    Jul 3, 1905 Burger, W.C. [3652], Ethiopia K000568567
    Jul 3, 1905 Baldwin Jr, J.T. [12101], USA K000658471
    Jul 3, 1905 Getahun, A. [371], Ethiopia K000658566
    Jul 3, 1905 Routledge, W.S. [s.n.], Kenya K000658593
    Jul 3, 1905 Hedberg, K.O. [280], Kenya K000658621
    Jul 3, 1905 Poc's, T. [89025/D], Tanzania K000658623
    Jul 3, 1905 Ruffo, R. [2739], Tanzania K000658634
    Jul 3, 1905 Múller, P.J. [223], South Africa K000658742
    Jul 3, 1905 Harding, J.J. [819], South Africa K000658746
    Jul 3, 1905 Lansdell, K.A. [854], South Africa K000658747
    Jun 30, 1905 Glover, P.E. [2074], Kenya K000658615
    Jun 13, 1905 Gereau, R.E. [3494], Tanzania K000658575
    Greenway, P.J. [12435], Tanzania K000658574
    Drummond, R.B. [2414], Tanzania K000658580
    Drummond, R.B. [2414], Tanzania K000658632
    Deighton, F.C. [1782], Sierra Leone K000658478
    Richards, H.M. [23830], Tanzania 6049.154
    Fanshawe, D.B. [F7802], Zambia K001158349
    Napier, E.R. [1950], Kenya K000658596
    Forrest, G. [6553], China K001152575
    Polhill [181], Kenya K000658583
    Morton, J.K. [SL3667] K000658481
    Bogdan, A. [4271], Kenya K000658600
    Robertson, S.A. [439], Tanzania K000658572
    Ridley, H.N. [s.n.], Indonesia K001153369
    Ridley, H.N. [s.n.], Indonesia K001153370
    Burger, W. [3652], Ethiopia K000658567
    Bidgood, S. [317], Tanzania K000658579
    Broadway, W.E. [1919], Trinidad & Tobago K001161111
    Smith, H.H. [985], St. Vincent & the Grenadines K001161108
    Nee, M. [14574], USA K001167993
    Ekman, E.L. [H2600a], Haiti K001161106
    Haarer, A.E. [936], Tanzania K000658570
    Haarer, A.E. [1037], Tanzania K000658577
    Magogo, F.C. [367], Tanzania K000658633
    Turckheim, H. von [3294] K001161103
    Pawek, J. [9949], Malawi K000658656
    Bangham, W.N. [842], Indonesia K001153371
    Lindl [s.n.] K001167997
    Dammann [s.n.] K001161104
    Herb. Forsyth [s.n.] K001161105
    Harris, T. [410], Mozambique K000613846
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001058019
    Symes, Y.E. [521], Kenya K000658584
    Eggers, H.F.A. von [4397], Bahamas K001161109
    Eggers, H.F.A. von [1559], Dominican Republic K001161110
    Valeur, E.J. [1015], Dominican Republic K001161107
    Gaudichaud-Beaupré, C. [s.n.] K001161112
    Ducloux, P. [776], China K001152576
    Clarke, C.B. [38359A] K001153139
    Schneider, C.K. [2636], China K001152574
    s.coll [s.n.], India K001153140
    s.coll [123], Myanmar K001153141
    s.coll [s.n.], India K001153142
    s.coll [s.n.] K001167994
    s.coll [s.n.] K001167995
    s.coll [s.n.] K001167996
    s.coll [s.n.] K001167998
    s.coll [1225], Tanzania K001156737
    s.coll [611], Jamaica K001161102
    Richards, H.M. Mrs [7550], Tanzania K000658578
    Bulley, A.K. [4480], China K001152573
    Mabatha, F.W. [2159], South Africa K001158979
    Herb Kuntze, O. [7945], Indonesia K001153372
    Gbile, Z.C. [62860], Nigeria K000658486
    Tressens, S.G. [3616], Argentina Solanum reflexum K001167833

    Bibliography

    First published in Icon. Pl. Rar. 1: 5 (1781)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Bitter in Fedde Rep. Beih. 16: 148.
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 228, partly (excl. syn. S. ciliatum Lam.)
    • Icon. Pl. Rar. 1: 5, t. 41 (1781)

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • White, Dowsett-Lemaire & Chapman, Evergreen For. Fl. Malawi: 553 (2001).
    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 243 (1994).
    • Hawkes, Lester, Nee & Estrada (eds.), Solanaceae III: 261, 265 (1991).
    • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 56: 176 (1987) pro parte excl. syn.
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 252 (1984).
    • J. S. African Bot. 13, Suppl.: 425 (1984).
    • Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 42 (1973).
    • Fanshawe, Check-list Woody Pl. Zambia Showing Distrib.: 40 (1973).
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
    • Jacot Guillarmod, Fl. Lesotho: 240 (1971).
    • Verdcourt & Trump, Common Pois. Pl. E. Afr.: 169, 171 (1969).
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2: 334 (1963).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 81: 308 (1962).
    • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 990 (1962).
    • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 580 (1949).
    • Robyns, Fl. Sperm. Parc Nat. Alb. 2: 214 (1947).
    • Hutchinson, Botanist South. Africa: 286, 340 (1946).
    • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 16: 148 (1923).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 189 (1906).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 228 (1906) pro parte excl. syn.
    • F.C. 4, 2: 97 (1904) pro parte excl. syn.
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 244 (1852) saltem pro parte excl. syn.
    • Collectanea 1: 100 (1787).
    • Ic. Pl. Rar. 1: 5, t. 41 (1786)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 145 (2006).
    • F.Z. 8, 4: 118 (2005);
    • RHS Gard. Dict. 4: 317 (1997);
    • Bothalia 25: 51 (1995);
    • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 243 (1994);
    • Blundell, Wild Flowers E. Afr.: 189 (1992);
    • Solanaceae III: 261, 265 (1991);
    • Bothalia 18: 83 (1988);
    • Solanaceae, Biol. & Syst.: 48 (1986)
    • Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 478 (1985, ined.)
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 252 (1984)
    • Biol. & Tax. Solanaceae: 115 (1979)
    • Verdcourt & Trump, Common Pois. Pl. E. Africa: 169, 171 (1969)
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 2: 334 (1963)
    • E.J. 81: 301, 308 (1962)
    • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Poisonous Pl. S and E Africa, ed. 2: 990 (1962)
    • Polhill, Solanum in E & NE Africa: 37 (ined., 1961)
    • T.T.C.L.: 580 (1949)
    • F.P.N.A. 2: 214 (1947)
    • Cat. Vasc. Pl. S. Tomé: 252 (1944)
    • F.R. 16: 148 (1923)
    • E.J. 38: 189 (1906)
    • pro parte excl. syn.; F.T.A. 4, 2: 228 (1906)
    • Fl. Cap. 4: 97 (1904)
    • P.O.A. C: 352 (1895)
    • Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 237 (1885)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 244 (1852) saltem pro parte excl. syn.
    • Fl. Bras. 10: Sp. 59, t. 10, fig. 10–16 (1846)
    • Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. Pl. 4: 434 (1837)
    • Dunal, Synopsis: 41 (1816)
    • Collectanea 1: 100 (1787)
    • Icon. Pl. Rar. 1: 5, t. 41 (1786) &

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0