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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum capsicoides All.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated at Turin, Allioni s.n. (TO, holo., photo!; WIS, photo!)*[Note: * As this part was going to press, it was found that Renvoize & Abdallah 1925 from Tanzania, Mufindi (EA) is this species.]
    Note
    This species is native to coastal Brazil and is now a successful weed in many tropical and subtropical areas; it only occurs sporadically in Africa where it has been intoduced as an ornamental in Ghana, Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe and South Africa (Natal). It prefers drier open lowland habitats, has apparently spread only slowly in Africa (Nee 1979) and has failed to become naturalised. The species is often known by the synonymous name S. ciliatum Lam. There has been much confusion between this species and S. aculeatissimum with Polhill (1961) suggesting that the latter was probably synonymous with S. capsicoides, and if so the latter name would have to take precedence . The two are most easily differentiated by their seed characteristics; those in S. capsicoides are larger (> 4 mm long) flat and winged, whereas those in S. aculeatissimum are smaller (< 3 mm long) rounded and without wings. It is probable that the Kenyan specimens listed as this species by Chiovenda (1912, 1935) were misidentified and belong to S. aculeatissimum. It is commonly known as the cock-roach berry, and the berries have been reported as poisonous to calves in Australia.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 900 - 1800 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba, arbusto
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Diagnostic
    Like the last (Solanum aculeatissimum), but indumentum less dense, particularly in the leaves above
    Leaves
    Leaves clearly ciliate (epithet!)
    Fruits
    Fruits always red.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Belize, Bermuda, Cape Provinces, China South-Central, China Southeast, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Japan, Laos, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Malaya, Manchuria, Mississippi, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Peru, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Society Is., South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum capsicoides All. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2013 [Martius] [254], Brazil K000590070 isotype
    Jan 1, 2005 Townsend, USA K000196288
    Feb 1, 1989 Agra, M.F. [697], Brazil K000983220
    Oct 1, 1988 Agra, M.F. [662], Brazil K000983223
    Jan 1, 1982 Fourcade, H.G. [1224], South Africa K000426005 isotype
    Jul 24, 1976 South Africa K000426006
    Jul 24, 1976 Preston, T.A. [1872], Brazil K000983222
    Jul 24, 1976 Mimura, I. [262], Brazil K000983219
    Jul 24, 1976 Burchell [972], Brazil K000983224
    Jul 22, 1976 Mueller, F. [379], Brazil K000983285
    Jul 22, 1976 Boog [s.n.], Brazil K000983210
    Jul 22, 1976 Glaziou, A.F.M. [8845], Brazil K000983211
    Jul 22, 1976 Martius [257], Brazil K000983212
    Jul 22, 1976 Martius [251], Brazil K000983213
    Jul 3, 1905 Jordan, H.D. [2114], Sierra Leone K000658468
    Jul 3, 1905 Morton, J.K. [A5008], Ghana K000658469
    Jul 3, 1905 Mann, G. [1110], Turkey K000658606
    Jul 3, 1905 Mann, G. [1110], Turkey K000658607
    Jul 3, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], United Kingdom K000658608
    Jul 3, 1905 Jardine, W. [s.n.] K000658609
    Hepper, F.N. [4403], Sri Lanka K001153151
    Hepper, F.N. [4703], Sri Lanka K001153152
    Hepper, F.N. [4414], Sri Lanka K001153153
    Hepper, F.N. [4403], Sri Lanka K001153154
    Chase [17997] K001168567
    Ridley, H.N. [s.n.] K001153256
    Ridley, H.N. [14257], Malaysia K001153258
    Renvoize, S.A. [1925], Tanzania 7346.000
    Simpson, N.D. [6115], Egypt K001168571
    Biegel, H.M. [3486], Zimbabwe K001168572
    Wood, M. [5718], South Africa K001168568
    Matthew, K.M. [55202], India K001153148
    Lugas, L. [752], Malaysia K001153397
    Lugas, L. [2095], Malaysia K001153398
    Lugas, L. [1015], Malaysia K001153401
    Lugas, L. [2482], Malaysia K001153402
    Lugas, L. [1482], Malaysia K001153403
    Lugas, L. [1731], Malaysia K001153404
    Lugas, L. [366], Malaysia K001153405
    Agra, M.F. [1329], Brazil K000983221
    Henry, A. [8380], China K001152359
    Jenman [5374], Guyana K001161419
    Jenman [5374], Guyana K001161422
    Tsang, W.T. [412], China K001152520
    Tsang, W.T. [21254], China K001152524
    Hoare, A. [133], Malaysia K001153399
    Hoare, A. [231], Malaysia K001153400
    Lei, C.I. [415], China K001152523
    Longman, H.A. [s.n.], Australia K001154158
    Duaneh, J. [311], Malaysia K001163341
    Clark, C.B. [1265], Singapore K001153255
    Gamble, J.S. [30959], United Kingdom K001168564
    Niyomdham, C. [1411], Thailand K001153305
    Everist, S.L. [s.n.], Australia K001154159
    Everist, S.L. [s.n.], Australia K001154160
    Chung, H.H. [1363], China K001152525
    Chow, K.S. [78465], China K001152528
    Furuse, M. [39058], Japan K001152529
    Furuse, M. [39792], Japan K001152530
    Pittier, H.F. [13435], Venezuela K001163340
    Harris, S.A. [TP 336], Guyana K001161420
    Fernandes, D. [432], Brazil K001161423
    Clarke, C.B. [3982], India K001153149
    Kerr, A.F.G. [4707], Thailand K001153304
    Kerr, A.F.G. [4707], Thailand K001153306
    s.coll [95], China K001152526
    s.coll [8], Singapore K001153257
    s.coll [29505], New Caledonia K001155373
    s.coll [26632], New Caledonia K001155374
    s.coll [20155], New Caledonia K001155375
    s.coll [H/892/33], South Africa K001168569
    s.coll [s.n.] K001168570
    s.coll [15568], Venezuela K001163339
    Hu, H.H. [52], China K001152517
    Krishnappa, D.G. [48], India K001153150
    DeWolf, G.P. [108], Costa Rica K001160114
    Shiu Ying Hu [7300], Hong Kong K001152516
    Shiu Ying Hu [5709], Hong Kong K001152518
    Shiu Ying Hu [8780], Hong Kong K001152519
    Mabatha, F.W. [2364], South Africa K001159162
    Tsang, W.-.T. [69], China K001152522
    Xiam Exp. [56], China K001152521
    Lau, S.Y. [20343], China K001152527
    Lanteh, M. [108975], Malaysia K001153406
    Plant, R. [158-67], United Kingdom K001168566
    Jenamn [5789], Guyana K001161421
    Solanum ciliatum 17710.000
    Melville, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum ciliatum K001151557
    Curtiss, A.H. [5048], USA Solanum ciliatum K001159748
    Curtiss, A.H. [2202], USA Solanum ciliatum K001159749
    Nash, G.V. [116], USA Solanum ciliatum K001159747
    s.coll [s.n.], Iraq Solanum ciliatum K001169387
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum ciliatum K001169388
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum ciliatum K001169389
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum ciliatum K001169390
    s.coll [H2630/67], United Kingdom Solanum ciliatum K001169391
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum ciliatum K001151556
    Wallut [s.n.], Brazil Solanum ciliatum K001169386
    Blom, C.H. [s.n.], Sweden Solanum ciliatum K001151558

    Bibliography

    First published in Auct. Syn. Meth. Stirp. Hort. Regii Taur.: 12 (1773)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Liogier, A.H. (1994). Flora de la Española 6: 1-517. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Liogier, A.H. (1994). Flora de la Española 6: 1-517. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 145 (2006).
    • F.Z. 8, 4: 69 (2005);
    • RHS Gard. Dict. 4: 317 (1997);
    • Bothalia 18: 84 (1988);
    • Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 477 (1985, ined.);
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 378 (1985);
    • Purdie, Symon & Haegi, Fl. Australia 29: 118 (1982);
    • Biol. & Tax. Solanaceae: 574 (1979);
    • Polhill, Solanum in E & NE Africa: 37 (ined., 1961),
    • Bot. Miss. Con. Kenya: 88 (1935),
    • Ann. Bot. 10: 19 (1912)
    • Mélanges Philos. Mathém.: 64 (1774);
    • Auct. Syn. Meth. Stirp. Hort. Reg. Taurensis: 64 (1773)

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0