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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum mauritianum Scop.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. & S. Brazil to Argentina (Buenos Aires).

    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A densely stellate-tomentose tree or shrub up to 20 ft. high
    Flowers
    Blue-purple flowers.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type: t. 8 of Scop., loc. cit. (1788), proposed by K. Roe in loc. cit. (1972), as iconolectotype, based probably on a plant cultivated in the Hortus Botanicus Ticinensis, Pavia (northern Italy), raised from seed originating on Mauritius obtained from a French source.
    General
    Large shrub or small tree to 4.5(5) m high, evergreen, foetid, unarmed; hairs stellate, sessile to long stalked, sometimes bearing a long central ray, and also a few simple, multicellular hairs, loose and floccose on new growth; tiny glandular hairs also present
    Ovary
    Ovary c.  1 mm in diameter, subglobose, tomentose.
    Style
    Style 5–6 mm long, exceeding the stamens, ± straight, stellate-pubescent on the lower half to two-thirds
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=24 Common name: "Bug Tree" or "Wild Tobacco Tree"
    Ecology
    Stream-banks and gardens; up to 1675 m.
    Distribution
    ZAM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, MOZ M Originally from Argentina and southern Brazil (fide Symon in tom. cit.: 97 (1981)) or native to Uruguay (fide K. Roe in tom. cit. (1972)) or to tropical Asia (fide Henderson & Anderson, loc. cit. (1966)), now widespread throughout the tropics, long-introd Zambia Zimbabwe Mozambique
    Habit
    Large shrub or small tree to 4.5(5) m high, evergreen, foetid, unarmed; hairs stellate, sessile to long stalked, sometimes bearing a long central ray, and also a few simple, multicellular hairs, loose and floccose on new growth; tiny glandular hairs also present.
    Branches
    Branches thickly covered with white felty hairs, subglabrous with age. Branches thickly covered with white felty hairs, subglabrous with age
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary; petiole 1–5.5 cm long, usually with 1–2 sessile, obliquely ovate-falcate, rounded, auricle-like, leafy, discolorous pseudostipules 1.3–4 × 0.9–2.5 cm at the base; lamina membranous or chartaceous, 4.5–29.5 × 1.5–13 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, sometimes ± oblong, base rounded to cuneate, unequally decurrent into the petiole, apex rather obtuse, usually long-acuminate, entire or sub-undulate, velvety pubescent above, distinctly paler, whitish felty with denser tomentum beneath. Leaves solitary; petiole 1–5.5 cm long, usually with 1–2 sessile, obliquely ovate-falcate, rounded, auricle-like, leafy, discolorous pseudostipules 1. 3–4 × 0.9–2.5 cm at the base; lamina membranous or chartaceous, 4.5–29.5 × 1. 5–13 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, sometimes ± oblong, base rounded to cuneate, unequally decurrent into the petiole, apex rather obtuse, usually long-acuminate, entire or sub-undulate, velvety pubescent above, distinctly paler, whitish felty with denser tomentum beneath
    Inflorescences
    Cymes terminal, becoming lateral, stout, dichotomously branched, corymbiform or ± paniculiform, 6.5–12 cm across, ± condensed, many-flowered; peduncle 8–18 cm long, thick, densely felty pubescent; pedicels 2–5 mm long. Cymes terminal, becoming lateral, stout, dichotomously branched, corymbiform or ± paniculiform, 6.5–12 cm across, ± condensed, many-flowered; peduncle 8–18 cm long, thick, densely felty pubescent; pedicels 2–5 mm long
    Calyx
    Calyx 5–7 mm long, slightly accrescent, deeply divided, densely felty-pubescent to floccose-tomentose; tube campanulate; lobes 2–4.5 × 2–3 mm, ovate-triangular to ovate-lanceolate or oblong-elliptic, acute or obtuse; in fruit enlarged to 6 × 4 mm. Calyx 5–7 mm long, slightly accrescent, deeply divided, densely felty-pubescent to floccose-tomentose; tube campanulate; lobes 2–4.5 × 2–3 mm, ovate-triangular to ovate-lanceolate or oblong-elliptic, acute or obtuse; in fruit enlarged to 6 × 4 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla blue to purple or mauve with a pale “star” at the base, stelliform or saucer-shaped, 12–18 mm across, tomentose outside but less densely than the calyx; lobes 4–6 × 3–5.5 mm, ovate to triangular or lanceolate, ± acute. Corolla blue to purple or mauve with a pale “star” at the base, stelliform or saucer-shaped, 12–18 mm across, tomentose outside but less densely than the calyx; lobes 4–6 × 3–5.5 mm, ovate to triangular or lanceolate, ± acute
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 2.5–3 mm long, narrowly ellipsoid, emarginate at both ends. Stamen filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 2.5–3 mm long, narrowly ellipsoid, emarginate at both ends
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, subglobose, tomentose; style 5–6 mm long, exceeding the stamens, ± straight, stellate-pubescent on the lower half to two-thirds.
    Fruits
    Fruit dull yellowish when ripe, sub-shining, 9–12 mm in diameter, ± globose, densely stellate-pubescent or tomentose, becoming subglabrous with age, poisonous, with 2 sub-apical, irregularly flattened sclerotic granules. Fruit dull yellowish when ripe, sub-shining, 9–12 mm in diameter, ± globose, densely stellate-pubescent or tomentose, becoming subglabrous with age, poisonous, with 2 sub-apical, irregularly flattened sclerotic granules
    Seeds
    Seeds pale yellow to golden-brown, 2–2.2 × 1.5–1.8 mm, reniform, lenticular or ovate in outline, minutely reticulate. Seeds pale yellow to golden-brown, 2–2.2 × 1. 5–1. 8 mm, reniform, lenticular or ovate in outline, minutely reticulate
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated in Hortus Botanicus Ticinensis, Pavia from seed probably originating in Mauritius; type specimen unknown, t. 8, Scopoli (1788) designated as a lectotype by Roe (1972)
    General
    Shrub to 3 m or small tree to 7 m, evergreen, foetid; branches erect, yellowishgreen and velvety through dense tomentose/flocculose pubescence with mostly stellate hairs, either sessile or long, multiseriate-stalked (sometimes with a long central ray), mixed with some uniseriate simple hairs and small four-celled glands
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary to alternate, coriaceous, dark green above, whitish- to yellowish-green below, usually lanceolate, 19–34+ × 6–9 cm, bases cuneate and decurrent, margins entire, apices acute to acuminate; pubescent with predominantly sessile stellate hairs above, tomentose/flocculose below with predominently stalked stellate hairs, especially dense on lower midribs and veins; petioles 2.5–4.5 cm long, subtended by two small sessile ovate auricular pseudo-stipules, 1–3.5 × 0.9–1.8 cm
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal becoming lateral and axillary, dichotomously forked, many-flowered erect compound corymbs 14–25 × 7–14 cm, usually > 100-flowered; peduncles 10–18 cm long, thick; pedicels erect, 3–4 mm long in flower, 4–5 mm long in fruit, articulated; axes densely tomentose/flocculose
    Calyx
    Calyx cupulate, 4–6.5 mm long, yellowish-green and densely stellate-tomentose, glabrescent internally; lobes broadly ovate to broadly triangular, sometimes unequal, 2–4 × 1.5–2.5 mm, obtuse to acute, adherent in fruit and 2.5–5 × 1.5–3.5 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla flowers purple to lilac with pale basal star, stellate to pentagonal, 1.4–2.3 cm diameter; tube ± 1.5 mm long; lobes broadly ovate to triangular, 3.5–6.5 × 2.5–6 mm, acute, stellate-tomentose externally but less so than calyx, glabrous internally, margins sometimes inrolled, laterally reflexed exposing anthers after anthesis. Stamens equal to subequal; filaments free for 1–1.2 mm, glabrous; anthers yellow to yellow-orange, 2–3 × 0.9–1.2 mm, free
    Ovary
    Ovary bilocular, 1–2 × 1.7–2 mm, densely pubescent; style straight to geniculate, exserted to 4 mm, 5.5–7 × 0.3–0.5 mm, stellate-pubescent at least in lower part; stigma clavate, 0.6–1.5 × 0.4–0.9 mm
    Fruits
    Berries yellow to yellowish-green, globose, with coriaceous pericarp softening with maturity, to 10 mm diameter, stellate-scabrid and glabrescent, probably shed with pedicels leaving scarring on inflorescence branches
    Seeds
    Seeds usually 100–150 or more per berry, yellow to yellowish-orange, orbicular, ovoid, spherical or discoid, 1.8–2 × 1.5–1.8 mm, foveolate; up to two globular sclerotic granules 0.8 mm diameter present.
    Ecology
    Escape from cultivated land, especially along forest paths and -margins, river banks and in dry river beds; 1150–2800 m
    Note
    This species is a highly successful pantropical weed now enjoying widespread distribution thoughout the tropics, largely due to the attraction of its succulent berries to birds causing rapid dispersal. Roe (1972) suggested that the dispersal of this and related species from their native South America to Africa coincided either accidentally or purposely with old Portugese and Spanish trade routes begun during the early- to mid- sixteenth century. Roe also noted that S. mauritianum is a successful coloniser of open and disturbed ground in a variety of habitats, and that it can also reproduce by adventitous shoots arising from shallow roots to form large colonies of plants. Jaeger & Hepper (Review of the genus Solanum in Africa, in D’Arcy (ed.), Solanaceae – Biology and Systematics: 48 (1986)) reported that S. mauritianum is the most notable of all the non-native Solanums introduced into Africa, now growing in western, central and eastern parts, and that is particularly widespread and troublesome in South Africa where it is thought to be the host plant for the larval stage of the Natal fruit-fly ( Pterandrus rosa). It is often known as the Wild Tobacco- or Bug- tree and is reportedly poisonous to pigs and cattle in Australia. In South Africa, Watt & Breyer-Brantwijk (1962) cited early reports of fruits of the synonymous S. auriculatum causing fatalities in humans in the Natal area as well as cattle poisoning, though birds eat the seeds without apparent ill effect. These authors also reported allergic skin reactions when the plants were handled together with various medicinal uses of this synonymous species. These included the treatment of Manioc poisoning by leaf juice application; leaf decoctions as a lotion for haemaerrhoid treatment, and the use of seeds mixed with coconut oil as an ointment to alleviate rheumatism. It is cultivated in New Zealand as a rootstock for the tree tomato ( Solanum betaceum – see page 104) Sendtner (1846) placed S. mauritianum in synonomy with S. auriculatum although the latter had been described one year later.
    Distribution
    Range: A troublesome weed in many parts of Australia, and often cultivated in Europe Range: Mauritius, Madagascar, Mascarenes Range: Native to southeastern Brazil, Uruguay and NE Argentina, now widespread and often naturalised throughout the tropics: Sierra Leone, ?Nigeria, Cameroon, Rwanda, Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa Range: Naturalised in the Atlantic Islands including Madeira and the Azores Range: Adventive in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka Flora districts: U4 K3 K4

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Peru, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Azores, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Free State, Hawaii, Jawa, Kenya, Madagascar, Madeira, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Sierra Leone, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Tonga, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum mauritianum Scop. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2013 Gardner [5050], Brazil K000983674
    Jan 1, 2011 Katende, T. [656], Uganda K000568308
    Jan 1, 2008 Cable, S. [1565], Cameroon K000541993
    Jan 1, 2008 Khayota, B. [558], Cameroon K000541988
    Jan 1, 2008 Ndam, N. [1376], Cameroon K000541986
    Jan 1, 2006 Zarucchi, J.L. [7310], Madagascar K000212332
    Jan 1, 2006 Gentry, A. [11412], Madagascar K000212323
    Jan 1, 2006 Decary, M.R. [19.331], Madagascar K000212318
    Jan 1, 2006 Baron, R. [3], Madagascar K000212320
    Jan 1, 2006 Meller [s.n.], Madagascar K000212333
    Jan 1, 2006 Humblot, M. [91], Madagascar K000212327
    Jan 1, 2006 Bouton, M. [5], Mauritius K000212315
    Jan 1, 2006 Croat, T.B. [28518], Madagascar K000212324
    Jan 1, 2006 Gautier, L. [2418], Madagascar K000212329
    Jan 1, 2006 Rakoto, R. [10], Madagascar K000212317
    Jan 1, 2006 Dorr, L.J. [3291], Madagascar K000212336
    Jan 1, 2006 Hodgkin, H.T. [41], Madagascar K000212322
    Jan 1, 2006 Derleth, P. [35], Madagascar K000212330
    Jan 1, 2006 L.B. [11652], Madagascar K000212319
    Jan 1, 2006 Afzelius, K. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212328
    Jan 1, 2006 s.coll. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212316
    Jan 1, 2006 s.coll. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212321
    Jan 1, 2006 s.coll. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212325
    Jan 1, 2006 s.coll. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212326
    Jan 1, 2006 s.coll. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212334
    Jan 1, 2006 Schlieben, H.-.J. [8097], Madagascar K000212335
    Jan 1, 2005 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212314
    Jul 17, 1998 Cunha, P.D. [s.n.], Brazil K000983103
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [13], Cameroon K000190184
    Jan 1, 1993 Nkeng, P. [57], Cameroon K000190185
    Jan 1, 1992 Chagas e Silva, F. [1520], Brazil K000983105
    Jan 1, 1991 Manning, S.D. [1269], Cameroon K000028664
    Jan 1, 1990 Letouzey, R. [11596], Cameroon K000028574
    Jan 1, 1990 Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000983112
    Jan 1, 1990 Sello [14], Brazil K000983108
    Jan 1, 1990 Robert, A. [s.n.], Brazil K000983676
    Jan 1, 1990 Reineck [91], Brazil K000983672
    Jan 1, 1990 Sandeman, C. [2018], Brazil K000983109
    Jan 1, 1990 Glaziou, A. [8851], Brazil K000983111
    Jan 1, 1990 Gardner [191], Brazil K000983106
    Jan 1, 1990 Gardner [5050], Brazil K000983110
    Jan 1, 1990 s.coll. [236], Brazil K000983671
    Jan 1, 1990 Burchell [829], Brazil K000983113
    Jan 1, 1990 Martius [236], Brazil K000983107
    Jan 1, 1959 Maitland, T.D. [597], Cameroon K000028560
    Jan 1, 1958 Dalziel, J.M. [8207], Cameroon K000028564
    Jan 1, 1958 Maitland, T.D. [58], Cameroon K000028569
    Jan 1, 1958 Hutchinson, J. [124], Cameroon K000028566
    Jan 1, 1958 Hutchinson, J. [124], Cameroon K000028567
    Jan 1, 1958 Hutchinson, J. [124], Cameroon K000028568
    Jan 1, 1958 Dunlap [103], Cameroon K000028565
    Jan 1, 1958 Dundas J. [20389], Cameroon K000028562
    Jan 1, 1958 Migeod, F. W. H. [242], Cameroon K000028561
    Bally, P.R.O. [8645], Kenya K001157773
    Chase, N.C. [8580], Zimbabwe K001169315
    Chase, N.C. [s.n.], Zimbabwe K001158644
    Deighton, F.C. [3961], Sierra Leone K001155753
    Hubbard, C.E. [2458], Australia K001154128
    Hubbard, C.E. [2458], Australia K001154129
    Hepper, F.N. [4424], Sri Lanka K001153173
    Hepper, F.N. [7856], Côte d'Ivoire K001155752
    Gossweiler, J. [1105], Angola K001029779
    Forman, L.L. [122], Indonesia K001153497
    Forman, L.L. [122], Indonesia K001153499
    Boughey, A.S. [6768], Cameroon K000028563
    Kajewski, S.F. [1003], Australia K001154127
    Moss, C.E. [19668], South Africa K001159342
    Symon, D.E. [2932], Australia K001154131
    Symon, D.E. [2932], Australia K001154132
    Adams, L.G. [3235], Australia K001154140
    Thomas, D.W. [2605], Cameroon K000028570
    Thomas, D.W. [2605], Cameroon K000028571
    Thomas, D.W. [2571A], Cameroon K000028572
    Thomas, D.W. [4052], Cameroon K000028573
    Coode, M.J.E. [4229], Reunion K001158946
    Arnold, M.H.M. [s.n.], South Africa K001159336
    Cadet, T. [2373], Reunion K001158947
    Armstrong [s.n.], Australia K001154123
    Worthington, T.B. [2419], Sri Lanka K001152796
    Worthington, T.B. [7085], Sri Lanka K001152797
    Worthington, T.B. [s.n.], Sri Lanka K001152804
    Matthew, K.M. [55200], India K001153177
    Matthew, K.M. [55200], India K001153178
    Davidse, G. [7659], Sri Lanka K001153176
    Chagas e Silva, F. [1520], Brazil K000983102
    Chagas e Silva, F. [1520], Brazil K000983104
    Koorders, S.H. [7692B], Indonesia K001153503
    Werdermann, E. [400], South Africa K001159343
    Wood, J.M. [1298], South Africa K001159338
    Lam, H.J. [5231], Reunion K001158948
    Backer, C.A. [6319], Indonesia K001153502
    Cooper, T. [1222], South Africa K001159337
    Cooper, T. [1222], South Africa K001159339
    Perdue, R.E. [9142A], Kenya K001157768
    Perdue, R.E. [8042], Kenya K001157769
    Perdue, R.E. [8042], Kenya K001157770
    Mwangangi, O.M. [2009], Kenya K001157767
    Mwangangi, O.M. [1634], Kenya K001157771
    Constable, E.F. [37893], Australia K001154139
    Coveny, R.G. [11340], Australia K001154133
    Coveny, R.G. [6476], Australia K001154136
    Durrington, L. [146], Australia K001154130
    Longman, H.A. [s.n.], Australia K001154124
    Boivin, M. [s.n.], Reunion K001158951
    Commerson [s.n.] K001158942
    Bouton [s.n.], France K001158950
    Mutimushi, J.M. [1992], Zambia K001158645
    Blackburn, J. [s.n.], Mauritius K001158953
    Devred, R. [2684], Congo K001155958
    Dechamps, R. [1430] K001029780
    Shantz, H.L. [79], South Africa K001159350
    St John, H. [24387], Australia K001154126
    Nicoll, M. [217], Madagascar K000212331
    Barthelat, F. [221], Mayotte K001158939
    Bartlett, A.W. [12] K000214900
    Mason, E. [69], South Africa K001159351
    Riswan, S. [J-025], Indonesia K001153501
    Fosberg, F.R. [58138], Sri Lanka K001152799
    Fosberg, F.R. [53235], Sri Lanka K001152803
    Parks, H.E. [16086], Tonga K001155516
    Soakai, E. [716], Tonga K001155515
    Compere, P. [768], Congo K001155955
    Stalmans, M. [225], South Africa K001159344
    Zunguze, D. [293], Mozambique K001158646
    Zunguze, D. [293], Mozambique K001158647
    Wager, V.A. [s.n.], South Africa K001159354
    Wager, V.A. [s.n.], South Africa K001159355
    Lawrence, E. [93], Tonga K001155517
    Katende, T. [656], Uganda K000658308
    Orchard, A.E. [4703], Australia K001154122
    Maiden, J.H. [169137], Australia K001154134
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [404], Swaziland K001159335
    Prendergast, H.D.V. [HDVP404], Swaziland K001159348
    Lorence, D.H. [4537], Mauritius K001158941
    Schiffner, V. [2508], Indonesia K001153500
    Waas, S. [444], Sri Lanka K001153175
    Hasan, N. [63], Indonesia K001153498
    Jouvin, P.P. [462], Brazil K001161770
    Dundas [20389], Cameroon K001155960
    Trigui, S.M. [SMT 449], Madagascar K001158940
    Thwaites, G.H.K. [s.n.], Sri Lanka K001152800
    Mandon, G. [s.n.], Portugal K001152291
    s.coll [s.n.], Portugal K001152293
    s.coll [624], Sri Lanka K001152801
    s.coll [A23/32], Australia K001154138
    s.coll [1107], Australia K001155310
    s.coll [5], Australia K001155311
    s.coll [s.n.], New Caledonia K001155383
    s.coll [20649], New Caledonia K001155384
    s.coll [1193], USA K001155588
    s.coll [H/4523/66] K001169309
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001169311
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001169312
    s.coll [H/4523/66] K001169313
    s.coll [H/4523/66] K001169314
    s.coll [1615], Kenya K001157765
    s.coll [2], Kenya K001157766
    s.coll [1749], Uganda K001157774
    s.coll [s.n.] K001158943
    s.coll [s.n.] K001158952
    s.coll [4911], Swaziland K001159334
    Rouhan, G. [40], Mayotte K001158945
    Comanor, P.L. [931], Sri Lanka K001152798
    Comanor, P.L. [932], Sri Lanka K001153174
    Bangerter, E.B. [5184], New Zealand K001155309
    Haegi, L. [1414], Australia K001154137
    Andriamahay, M. [SNGF1847], Madagascar K001158944
    Maesen, L.J.G. van der [2308], India K001153179
    Maesen, L.J.G. van der [4550], South Africa K001159347
    Schlieben, H.-.J. [7065], South Africa K001159356
    Morley, H. [s.n.], USA K001155589
    Baumann-Bodenheim, M. [10080], New Caledonia K001155382
    Gardner [624], Sri Lanka K001152802
    Krishnappa, D.G. [152], India K001152795
    Howick [s.n.], South Africa K001159340
    Tweedie [2996], Kenya K001157772
    Backer [22802], Indonesia K001153504
    Pignal, M.M. [1234], Mayotte K001158938
    Herb Callens, H. [3001] K001155959
    Herb. Kuntze, C.E.O. [s.n.], Portugal K001152292
    Vargas Calderón, J.C. [1410], Brazil K001161766
    Marquês, E.S.A. [20300], Brazil K001161769
    Herb Longman, H.A. [s.n.], Australia K001154125
    Dunn, C. [448], Australia K001154135
    Hort. Bot. Reg. Kew [389-59-38901], United Kingdom K001169310
    Henry, P.W.J. [SH 20/73], St. Helena K000214901
    Herb Symoens, J-J. [13604], Congo, DRC K001155956
    Herb Symoens, J-J. [13604], Congo, DRC K001155957
    Nicolle, W.H.H. [253201], Zimbabwe K001158643
    Kopp [34], Reunion K001158949
    Booi, A. [58], South Africa K001159341
    Vuuren, D.R.J. van [1860], South Africa K001159345
    Sanders, D.E. [s.n.], South Africa K001159346
    Russell, P.J. [37], South Africa K001159349
    Schyff, H.P. van de [878], South Africa K001159352
    Iheron, G.C. [807], South Africa K001159353
    Cobra, L.S.C. [20384], Brazil K001161765
    Moreira, R.C. [20388], Brazil K001161767
    Albino, U. [16], Brazil K001161768
    McKee, H.S. [3918], New Caledonia Solanum auriculatum K001155361
    Russell, P.G. [48550] Solanum auriculatum K001168347
    Goodenough [s.n.] Solanum auriculatum K001080627
    Franc, M. [s.n.], New Caledonia Solanum auriculatum K001155360
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2617] Solanum auriculatum K001116616
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2617] Solanum auriculatum K001116617
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2617] Solanum auriculatum K001116618
    Tweedie [s.n.], Uruguay Solanum auriculatum K001167226
    Tweedie [s.n.] Solanum auriculatum K001167227
    Telfair, C. [Cat. no. 2617], Mauritius Solanum auriculatum K001116615
    Schwarz, G. [s.n.], Argentina Solanum auriculatum K001167228
    Gourlay, B. [245-51], United Kingdom Solanum auriculatum K001168348
    Claussen, P. [s.n.], Brazil Solanum tabaccifolium K001058824
    Claussen, P. [1840], Brazil Solanum tabaccifolium K001058825

    Bibliography

    First published in Delic. Fl. Faun. Insubr. 3: 16 (1788)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Bitter in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 54: 491 (1917).
    • Delic. Fl. et Faun. Insubr. 3: 16 (1788)

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 243 (1994).
    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs & Lianas: 582 (1994). TAB. 17.
    • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 53: 176 (1986).
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 380, fig. 122/3 (1985).
    • J. S. African Bot. 13, Suppl.: 425 (1984).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 657, fig. 225/3 (1982)
    • J. Adel. Bot. Gard. 4: 95, fig. 26, 156/F, 161/B (1981).
    • Hawkes et al., Biol. & Taxon. Solanac.: 131 (1979).
    • Compton, Fl. Swaziland: 517 (1976).
    • J.M. Gibson, Wild Fl. Natal (Coast. Reg.): 91 cum t. 91 fig. 9 (1975).
    • Bull. I.F.A.N., Sér. A, 36: 392 (1974).
    • Palmer & Pitman, Trees South. Africa 3: 1983 (1973).
    • Brittonia 24: 254 (1972).
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
    • M.D. Henderson & J.G. Anderson, Common Weeds S. Afr.: 278, fig. 138 (1966).
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2: 332 (1963).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 81: 321 (1962).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54: 491 (1917).
    • Delic. Fl. & Faun. Insubr. 3: 16, t. 8 (1788).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F.Z. 8(4): 86, t. 17 (2005).
    • Mansfeld, Encycl. Agric. & Hort. Crops: 1818 (2001)
    • Bothalia 25(1): 50 (1995)
    • D’Arcy & Rakotozafy, Fl. Madagascar, Solanaceae: 110 (1994)
    • K.T.S.L.: 582 (1994)
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 243 (1994)
    • Huxley et al., New RHS Dict. Gard. 4: 319 (1992)
    • Fl. Ceylon 4: 369 (1987)
    • Fl. Ceylon 6: 370 (1987)
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 380 (1985)
    • Jaeger, Syst. studies Solanum in Africa: 328 (1985)
    • Fl. Austral. 29: 115 (1982)
    • Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda, Ser. 8, No. 2: 657 (1982)
    • J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 95 (1981)
    • Fl. Nouv.-Caled., 7: 137 (1976)
    • U.K.W.F.: 526 (1974)
    • Brittonia 24: 239 (1972)
    • Fl. Europ. 3: 197 (1972)
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd. ed.: 332 (1963)
    • Polhill, Solanum in E and N Africa: 12 (ined., 1961)
    • Baileya 8: 34 (1960)
    • E.J. 54: 486 (1917)
    • Delic. Fl. & Faun. Insubr.: 3: 16, t. 8 (1788)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0