1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Phyllostachys Siebold & Zucc.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Himalaya to Central & S. China, Hainan, Taiwan.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated; leptomorph. Culms erect; 100-767.2-3500 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes similar in length (1/1), or abbreviated and closely packed at the base (1/1); semiterete. Culm-nodes swollen (8/9), or flanged (1/9); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (2/11), or with distinct supra-nodal ridge (9/11). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement two (33/34), or three (1/34); in a horizontal line (1/1); with 1 branch dominant (31/31); thinner than stem (1/1). Culm-sheaths deciduous (13/13); without auricles (31/46), or auriculate (19/46). Culm-sheath blade linear (31/47), or lanceolate (7/47), or triangular (21/47). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (38), or erect (1), or falcate (18). Ligule an eciliate membrane (11), or a ciliolate membrane (40), or a ciliate membrane (2). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (1), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (50). Leaf-blades linear (4), or lanceolate (49), or oblong (2). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (1/1). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (42), or with distinct cross veins (9).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence bractiferous (18/18); fasciculate (16/18), or clustered at the nodes (2/18); with spathaceous subtending bracts (18/18); without axillary buds at base of spikelet (15/15); leafless between branches (1/1). Fertile spikelets sessile (18/18).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (1/1); 1 fertile florets (5/18), or 2 fertile florets (13/18), or 3 fertile florets (10/18), or 4 fertile florets (8/18), or 5 fertile florets (3/18), or 6 fertile florets (1/18); without rhachilla extension (2/18), or with a barren rhachilla extension (14/18), or with diminished florets at the apex (2/18). Spikelets lanceolate (18/18); laterally compressed (18/18); 8-22.55-36 mm long; breaking up at maturity (18/18); disarticulating below each fertile floret (18/18). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (16/17), or sparsely hairy (1/17), or pubescent (2/17).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (1/1); 1 fertile florets (5/18), or 2 fertile florets (13/18), or 3 fertile florets (10/18), or 4 fertile florets (8/18), or 5 fertile florets (3/18), or 6 fertile florets (1/18); without rhachilla extension (2/18), or with a barren rhachilla extension (14/18), or with diminished florets at the apex (2/18). Spikelets lanceolate (18/18); laterally compressed (18/18); 8-22.55-36 mm long; breaking up at maturity (18/18); disarticulating below each fertile floret (18/18). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (16/17), or sparsely hairy (1/17), or pubescent (2/17).
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure (1/18), or one the lower absent or obscure (12/18), or two (8/18); persistent (18/18); shorter than spikelet (18/18). Lower glume lanceolate (5/5); membranous (1/1); 1-keeled (1/1); 1-3 -veined (1/1). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1/8), or distinct (8/8). Lower glume apex acuminate (1/1). Upper glume linear (1/18), or lanceolate (5/18), or oblong (12/18); 0.6-0.65-0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (1/18), or chartaceous (17/18); without keels (8/15), or 1-keeled (6/15), or 2-keeled (1/15); 5-6 -veined (1/2), or 7 -veined (2/2), or 8-9 -veined (1/2). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (15/18), or ciliolate (3/18). Upper glume surface glabrous (15/18), or puberulous (3/18). Upper glume apex acute (16/18), or acuminate (1/18), or setaceously attenuate (1/18).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (1/1); with palea (1/1). Fertile lemma lanceolate (5/18), or elliptic (6/18), or ovate (7/18); chartaceous (18/18); without keel (15/16), or keeled (1/16); 7-8 -veined (1/7), or 9 -veined (3/7), or 10 -veined (2/7), or 11 -veined (4/7), or 12-13 -veined (2/7), or 15-17 -veined (1/7). Lemma lateral veins prominent (1/1). Lemma surface glabrous (11/18), or puberulous (1/18), or pubescent (4/18), or pilose (1/18), or hispidulous (1/18). Lemma margins eciliate (17/18), or ciliate (1/18). Lemma apex acute (3/18), or acuminate (14/18), or setaceously attenuate (1/18); muticous (15/18), or awned (3/18); 1 -awned (3/3). Palea 0.5-0.9438-1 length of lemma; chartaceous (18/18); 6 -veined (1/2), or 12 -veined (1/2). Palea keels separated (17/18), or approximate (1/18); eciliate (14/18), or ciliolate (3/18), or ciliate (1/18). Palea surface glabrous (13/18), or puberulous (1/18), or pubescent (3/18), or pilose (1/18). Palea apex dentate (4/4); muticous (16/18), or with excurrent keel veins (2/18). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (1/2), or distinct from fertile (1/2); rudimentary (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 3 (18/18); glabrous (11/18), or ciliate (7/18); obtuse (1/2), or acute (1/2). Anthers 3 (18/18). Stigmas 2 (1/17), or 3 (16/17). Ovary unappendaged (12/18), or umbonate (6/18); glabrous (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (15/15).
    Distribution
    Africa (1), or Temperate Asia, or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (3), or Pacific (2), or North America (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, Myanmar, Taiwan, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Arkansas, Austria, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cameroon, Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Georgia, Great Britain, Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mississippi, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Oregon, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Seychelles, Sicilia, South Australia, South Carolina, Spain, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Virginia, West Virginia

    Phyllostachys Siebold & Zucc. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 3: 745 (1843)

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0