1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Amphicarpaea Elliott ex Nutt.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Himalaya to Russian Far East and Temp. E. Asia, N. America.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Climbing herbs.
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipels present.
    Flowers
    Flowers in lax racemes, sometimes dimorphic with cleistogamous flowers; bracts conspicuous, striate, but bracteoles absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, but with the two upper lobes connate.
    Corolla
    Corolla small; standard obovate, glabrous.
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free, the rest fused into a sheath; anthers uniform, or in cleistogamous flowers up to 5 fertile.
    Pistil
    Ovary shortly stipitate, many-ovuled; style geniculate, filiform, beardless; stigma capitate, terminal, or in cleistogamous flowers the style short with the stigma angled such that it is in contact with the anthers.
    Fruits
    Pod linear or falcate, compressed.
    Seeds
    Seeds variously coloured, subglobose or ovoid, with a short lateral hilum.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    Amphicarpaea has been conserved against the original spelling of Amphicarpa, and is strongly supported as sister to Teramnus and Glycine by Lee & Hymowitz (2001); Wojciechowski et al. (2004) resolved an Amphicarpaea-Glycine clade from which tribe Psoraleeae is derived (see note under Cologania)
    Habit
    Herbs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry montane tropical forest (in Africa) or coastal to montane temperate forest, woodland, thicket, bushland or wooded grassland
    Distribution
    C and E USA, SE Canada to Mexico (1 sp.); E Asia (Russia, Japan, Korea, China) to Himalayas (2-3 spp.); montane tropical C and E Africa (1 sp.)
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as cover crops, for erosion control and human food

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Arkansas, Assam, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Connecticut, Delaware, East Himalaya, Florida, Georgia, Hainan, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Japan, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Gulf, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Québec, Rhode I., South Carolina, South Dakota, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Wisconsin

    Amphicarpaea Elliott ex Nutt. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 20, 2002 Whyte, A. [236], Malawi K000072274

    First published in Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 113 (1818)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelp. 1: 372 (1817).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Turner & Fearing in Southw. Naturalist 9: 207–218 (1964).
    • Elliott in J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1: 372 (Sept. 1818) as “Amphicarpa”.
    • Gen. N. Am. Pl. 2: 113 (Apr. 1818) nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0