1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Argyrolobium Eckl. & Zeyh.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is S. Africa to Tropical African Mountains, Madagascar, Medit. to India.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Shrubs and herbs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical to warm temperate grassland, woodland and forest edges, more rarely in mediterranean shrubland; also extending into xerophytic scrubland, desert and coastal areas, usually on sand and in rocky places
    Distribution
    principally southern Africa (c. 50 spp. in S Africa), c. 10 spp. in the highlands of tropical Africa to Ethiopia, 3 spp. in Madagascar and c. 15 spp. in the Mediterranean (N Africa and S Europe) to Arabia, W Asia and thinly to India
    Note
    Formerly placed, with Dichilus and Melolobium, with some uncertainty (Polhill, 1976; 1981q) in Crotalarieae, but, with more information on the phytochemistry, now confidently attributed to Genisteae (Van Wyk & Schutte, 1989; 1995a); molecular evidence (Käss & Wink, 1997; Pyne, 1999; Crisp et al., 2000; Wink & Mohamed, 2003) suggests that the genus is not monophyletic and there is a need for a comprehensive study; some species are morphologically and chemically closely related to the genus Polhillia; relationships among the South African species were explored by Edwards (1994) and Moteetee (2003)

    Bisby (1981: 409–425) divided the Genisteae into subtribes Genistinae and Lupininae, a principal division taking both morphological and chemical evidence into account. Polhill (1976) drew attention to the similarities between woody Thermopsideae (Anagyris and allies) and the main part of Genisteae, and between the herbaceous genera of that tribe, Baptisia and Thermopsis, and Lupinus. Crisp et al. (2000) emphasise the lability of staminal fusion in genistoid tribes as a whole, and it might be supposed that the free-stamened Thermopsideae would be better included in Genisteae. In recent molecular analyses (Käss & Wink, 1997; Crisp et al., 2000; Wink & Mohamed, 2003; Wojciechowski et al., 2004), however, all Thermopsideae grouped with Sophora and close allies, and Lupinus was relatively basally branching in Genisteae, above the southern African genera Melolobium and Dichilus (previously placed in Crotalarieae). The similarities between Baptisia, Thermopsis and Lupinus are likely due to strong ecological convergence in temperate habitats.

    The Genisteae forms part of a monophyletic clade, the ‘core genistoids’ which also includes Crotalarieae, Podalyrieae, Thermopsideae, Brongniartieae, Euchresteae and Sophoreae sens. strict. (Crisp et al., 2000; Pennington et al., 2000a; Kajita et al., 2001). Genisteae appears to be sister to the Crotalarieae and both are sister to the Podalyrieae (Crisp et al., 2000; Wojciechowski et al., 2004). There is now convincing evidence that Melolobium, Dichilus, Argyrolobium and Polhillia (the Argyrolobium clade of Van Wyk & Schutte, 1995a), together with Anarthrophyllum (and probably Sellocharis), are part of Genisteae and that the similarities with the Crotalarieae (the remarkable parallels between Dichilus and Lebeckia for example) are superficial only (e.g., Wink & Mohamed, 2003; Wojciechowski et al., 2004). Crisp et al. (2000) suggested that this group of genera may be sister to Crotalarieae but their analysis did not include critical genera such as Adenocarpus and Lupinus. Less emphasis is now given to stamen fusion, and these genera have been formally transferred to Genisteae based on the shared presence of a trifid lower lip of the calyx and the distinctive quinolizidine alkaloids of the a-pyridone type (Van Wyk & Verdoorn, 1990; Van Wyk & Schutte, 1995a; Wink & Mohamed, 2003). Van Wyk et al. (1989) suggest that Spartidium, currently in the Crotalarieae, may be better placed in Genisteae.

    More detailed molecular studies are necessary to fully assess relationships of the genera. Käss & Wink (1997) undertook the first detailed molecular analysis of Genisteae using rbcL and ITS sequences, and limited ITS sampling by Crisp et al. (2000) is largely congruent with this, also supporting a paraphyletic Argyrolobium. The two southern African species of Argyrolobium analysed by Crisp et al. (2000) are dispersed within the Genista group (linked to Spartium and Retama). Käss & Wink (1997) sampled four species of Argyrolobium, two from southern Africa and two from the Mediterranean Region, and these are more basally branching in the tribe (Fig. 38), although the Mediterranean species A. zanonii (Turra) P.W.Ball groups elsewhere near the base of the Cytisus group. These results are largely supported in the chloroplast rbcL analyses of Wink & Mohamed (2003), with more species of Argyrolobium sampled and a placement of A. zanonii as sister to the combined Genista and Cytisus complexes. The ITS analysis of mainly Spanish Genisteae (Pyne, 1999) is also largely congruent with Käss & Wink (1997), except for Argyrolobium where one southern African species groups within the Genista complex and A. zanonii is basally branching to it. The sequence for Lembotropis is acknowledged as suspect in the Pyne analysis, and its position allied to Cytisus (as C. nigricans) (Käss & Wink, 1997; Wink & Mohamed, 2003) is more in agreement with morphological evidence. The biggest problem areas remaining, besides resolving relationships within Argyrolobium, are generic delimitation within the Cytisus and Genista groups and the decision whether to recognise a few large, or many small genera. Morphologically, Argyrolobium is more coherent than the current molecular evidence seems to suggest and a broader sampling and reanalysis would be informative. For the main part of Genisteae, the segregation of the groups of genera around Cytisus and Genista is evident (Käss & Wink, 1997; Cubas et al., 2002; Wink & Mohamed, 2003; Pardo et al., 2004), but the placement of many genera is not well supported. Käss & Wink (1997) conclude that the position of many of these genera which lie between the Cytisus and Genista complexes cannot be established with certainty, probably because of the small number of nucleotide substitutions available (due to rapid and recent diversification) and homoplasy. So as not to obscure the morphological relationships prior to further molecular studies, the subtribal classification of Talavera & Salgueiro (1999), slightly extended and modified, is outlined here. The Genisteae here comprises 25 genera and (551)–562–(572) species (Fig. 38). Adenocarpinae Rouy — Melolobium, Dichilus, Polhillia, Argyrolobium and Adenocarpus (South Africa, tropical Africa (mostly montane) and Mediterranean region, thinly to the Indian subcontinent); this group largely comprises a basal grade on molecular evidence, but all genera need further analysis. Lupininae Rouy — Lupinus, Anarthrophyllum, Sellocharis (Americas, particularly montane regions in the west; Mediterranean region, tropical Africa). Cytisinae (Horan.) Benth. — Cytisophyllum, Argyrocytisus, Petteria, Cytisus, Lembotropis, Calicotome (Europe, Mediterranean region and Macaronesia). Laburninae Rouy — Laburnum, Podocytisus, Hesperolaburnum (Mediterranean, principally Balkans and Atlas Mts); these genera are treated here as being nested within Cytisinae. Erinaceinae Talavera — Erinacea (SW Europe and N Africa); genera in the Erinaceinae and in Spartiinae below, are treated here as being nested within the Genistinae. Spartiinae Benth. — Gonocytisus, Retama, Spartium (Mediterranan region). Genistinae Bronn — Genista, Echinospartum, Stauracanthus, Ulex (Europe, mostly western, and Mediterranean region)

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Herbs, undershrubs or small shrubs, often with a soft indumentum.
    Leaves
    Leaves, digitately 3-foliolate; stipules small to large, free or sometimes united to each other or to the petiole.
    Flowers
    Flowers in terminal or leaf-opposed racemes, the inflorescence sometimes contracted and subumbelliform, flowers rarely solitary; cleistogamous flowers with reduced parts and producing small pods often present.
    Calyx
    Calyx nearly as long as the corolla, deeply divided, the 2 upper lobes free or shortly united into a upper lip, the 3 lower ones united into a 3-toothed lower lip.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow; standard obovate to subcircular, shortly clawed, not appendaged; wings often with rows of folds between the veins; keel slightly incurved, obtuse.
    Stamens
    Stamens usually united into a closed tube, rarely split above, with longer basifixed anthers alternating with shorter dorsifixed anthers.
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile or subsessile, many-ovulate, tapering upward to the upcurved style; stigma small, terminal.
    Fruits
    Pod linear-oblong, laterally compressed, sometimes constricted between the seeds, dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds usually oblong-ovate, compressed with a small sunken hilum.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herbs or small shrubs, often with silky or villous indumentum
    Leaves
    Leaves digitately 3-foliolate
    Stipules
    Stipules narrow or expanded, free or united along the leaf-opposed margin; stipels absent
    Flowers
    Flowers in terminal or leaf-opposed few-many-flowered racemes, often subumbelliform, rarely solitary; cleisto-gamous flowers sometimes present, with small calyx, reduced corolla and androecium, also developing smaller pods
    Calyx
    Calyx deeply divided, with the 2 upper lobes free or shortly united and the lower united into a shortly 3-lobed lip
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow; standard without appendages, glabrous or hairy outside; wings often with rows of crescent-shaped folds between the upper veins; keel slightly incurved, obtuse
    Stamens
    Stamens all united into a closed tube, rarely split above; anthers alternately long and short
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, many-ovulate; style glabrous at least above (hairs like those of the ovary sometimes on basal part); stigma capitate, ± oblique
    Fruits
    Pod linear-oblong, compressed, with the valves continuous or transversely constricted between the seeds
    Seeds
    Seeds mostly oblong-ovate, with a small hilum; rim-aril inconspicuous.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used for ground cover, erosion control, human food (roots) and medicine

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Baleares, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Chad, Corse, Cyprus, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Greece, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kenya, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Argyrolobium Eckl. & Zeyh. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Enum. Pl. Afric. Austral.: 184 (1836)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Polhill in Kew Bull. 22: 145–168 (1968).
    • Enum. Pl. Afr.: 184 (1836) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Enum. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 184 (1836), nom. conserv .

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0