1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Cyathula Blume

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical to China.

    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs with entire, opposite leaves.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal on the stem and branches, spiciform or capitate, bracteate, the ultimate division basically a triad of fertile flowers, the outer pair bracteolate and subtended laterally by 2 modified bracteolate flowers consisting of a number of sharply uncinately hooked (more rarely straight or glochidiate) spines or bracteoliform processes, but one or both of the outer pair sometimes absent, bracteoles also sometimes with a hooked arista; spines of the modified flowers at first small, rapidly accrescent, few to many, clustered with the clusters not or very shortly stalked.
    Bracteoles
    Bracts persistent, finally more or less deflexed; bracteoles and perianth falling with the fruit.
    Perianth
    Perianth segments 5, very shortly mucronate or some (especially the outer 2) hooked-aristate, serving with the bracteoles and modified flowers to distribute the fruit.
    Androecium
    Stamens 5, the filaments delicate, shortly monadelphous at the base, alternating with distinct, commonly toothed or lacerate pseudostaminodes; anthers bilocular.
    Style
    Style slender, stigma capitate.
    Ovary
    Ovary with a single pendulous ovule.
    Fruits
    Fruit a thin-walled utricle, irregularly ruptured by the developing seed.
    Seeds
    Seed ovoid, slightly compressed; endosperm copious.
    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs with entire opposite leaves
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal on the stem and branches, spiciform or capitate, bracteate, the ultimate division basically a triad of fertile flowers, the outer pair bracteolate and subtended on the outer surface by 2 modified bracteolate flowers consisting of a number of sharply uncinately hooked (rarely glochidiate or sometimes straight) spines or bracteoliform processes, but one or both of the outer pair sometimes absent, bracteoles sometimes also with a strongly hooked arista, the spines of the modified flowers at first small, rapidly accrescent, few to many, clustered, with the clusters not or very shortly stalked
    Bracts
    Bracts persistent, finally ± deflexed; bracteoles and perianth falling with the fruit
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments 5, very shortly mucronate or some (especially the outer 2) hooked-aristate, serving with the bracteoles and modified flowers to distribute the fruit
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, the filaments delicate, shortly monadelphous at the base, alternating with distinct, commonly toothed or lacerate pseudostaminodes; anthers bilocular
    Pistil
    Ovary with a single pendulous ovule; style slender; stigma capitate
    Fruits
    Fruit a thin-walled capsule, irregularly ruptured by the developing seed
    Seeds
    Seed ovoid, slightly compressed; endosperm copious.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cook Is., French Guiana, Guyana, Leeward Is., Marquesas, Mauritius, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Seychelles, Society Is., Suriname, Tubuai Is., Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Cyathula Blume appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 548 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 42.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Bijdr. Fl. Nederl. Ind.: 548 (1825) nomen cons. (non Cyathula Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 93, 101 (1790)).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • C.C. Townsend in Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 7–8: 74–78 (1977), nom. conserv.
    • Bijdr. Fl. Nederl. Ind.: 548 (1826)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/