1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Derris Lour.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to S. Africa and NW. Pacific.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae by J.M. Lock*

    Habit
    Lianes or (not in Africa) trees. Lianes or (not in Africa) trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets opposite, exstipellate. Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets opposite, exstipellate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence usually a contracted racemose panicle with clusters of flowers on short lateral spurs (pseudoracemes), rarely of single axillary flowers. Inflorescence usually a contracted racemose panicle with clusters of flowers on short lateral spurs (pseudoracemes), rarely of single axillary flowers.
    Flowers
    Flowers pinkish. Flowers pinkish.
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, teeth obsolete. Calyx campanulate, teeth obsolete.
    Filaments
    Stamen-filaments connate into an almost closed tube, the upper filament often free at the base; anthers versatile.
    Ovary
    Ovary few-ovulate; style filiform, stigma terminal.
    Fruits
    Pod indehiscent, broad, flattened, winged on dorsal suture. Pod indehiscent, broad, flattened, winged on dorsal suture.
    Corolla
    Standard suborbicular; wings oblong; keel petals slightly connate on the upper margins. Standard suborbicular; wings oblong; keel petals slightly connate on the upper margins.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments connate into an almost closed tube, the upper filament often free at the base; anthers versatile.
    Pistil
    Ovary few-ovulate; style filiform, stigma terminal.
    Seeds
    Seed subreniform, radicle inflexed. Seed subreniform, radicle inflexed.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Woody climbers, less commonly trees or erect shrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, sometimes only pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules mostly small and caducous; stipels present or absent; leaflets opposite
    Flowers
    Flowers in terminal and axillary well-developed or contracted and subracemose panicles, but always with flowers crowded on the short ultimate branches or clustered at the nodes; bracts and bracteoles small
    Calyx
    Calyx usually cupulate and sub-truncate or with only very short teeth of which the upper 2 are practically united
    Corolla
    Corolla much longer than calyx, white, pink or purplish, usually glabrous; standard ovate to obovate or suborbicular, sometimes with auricles or calluses at base of the blade; wings adhering to keel-petals, usually with a conspicuous fold or pocket on basal part of the blade; keel-petals little curved, lightly coherent on the lower side towards tips
    Stamens
    Stamens united into a tube closed above but with openings at base either side of the vexillary stamen (the latter may be free in young bud); anthers dorsifixed
    Pistil
    Ovary often subsessile, few-ovulate; style curved and tapered to a very small terminal stigma, glabrous or the lower part covered with hairs like those of the ovary
    Fruits
    Fruit flattened, indehiscent, elliptic to linear-oblong with wings along upper or both edges (sometimes and not in East Africa the wings little developed), usually subsessile, papery to coriaceous, 1–few-seeded
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong-reniform to broadly reniform, smooth or wrinkled, with a small hilum; rim-aril small, sometimes detaching with the rather persistent funicle.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Relationships among genera of Millettieae have been notoriously difficult to unravel based on traditional morphological evidence and this is exemplified by the alphabetical arrangement of genera in the tribal treatments of Geesink (1981; 1984) and Polhill (1994). Geesink (1981) recognised 44 genera and c. 870 species in tribe Millettieae (as ‘Tephrosieae’) while 43 genera were accounted for in Geesink (1984) and Polhill (1994). The genera recognised, however, varied considerably with only 33 genera in common to both treatments of Geesink, while the list of Polhill (1994) combined elements of Geesink (1981, 1984) with new data accumulated since then. Tephrosia has traditionally comprised some 400 species but this is re-estimated at c. 350 species here.

    The traditional circumscription of the predominantly pantropical and subtropical tribe Millettieae is followed here (Fig. 45), with 45 genera and (904)–909–(914) species being recognised, (i.e. excluding the two genera and 11 species transferred to Brongniartieae, see Table 8), although the concept of what comprises Millettieae sens. strict. is changing rapidly based on evidence from molecular phylogenies. Sequence data for millettioid genera comes from the plastid rbcL gene (Doyle et al., 1997; 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu & Chang, 2003), phytochrome nucleotide genes (Lavin et al., 1998), the plastid trnK-matK region (Hu et al., 2000) and the nuclear ITS region (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2002). Molecular data, together with reinterpreted evidence based on chemistry (Evans et al., 1985) and wood anatomy (Gasson et al., 2004), have been the basis for recognising a number of informal suprageneric groupings and for transferring Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe to tribe Brongniartieae (Table 8; Fig. 45).

     The most far-reaching result of the above molecular analyses was that a substantial part of the traditionally circumscribed tribe Phaseoleae is more closely allied to the core-Millettieae than to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade (see page 393). Circumscription of a revised tribe Millettieae is not possible at present until genera are more comprehensively sampled; however, a Millettioid sens. strict. group might be expected to include some genera in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group, Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae, Ophrestiinae and in small part the Erythrininae, tribe Abreae and the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45). The basal millettioid and phaseoloid group comprises 17 genera (94 species) that may belong either in the Millettioids sens. strict. or Phaseoleae sens. lat., or to a clade sister to both these groups (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001). The core-Millettieae clade comprises c. 22 genera and c. 777 spp., with some additional generic segregates being necessary within the ‘canavanine group’ (Evans et al., 1985), to accommodate species of Millettia sens. lat. and Fordia sens. lat., which on the basis of molecular and chemical evidence are excluded from Millettia and Fordia sens. strict.

    Relationships between the major groups of genera centred on Lonchocarpus, Derris, Millettia and Tephrosia remain obscure, and still reflect a geographical bias in segregating them, i.e. distributions are limited largely to the New World in the Lonchocarpus group, and the Old World in the other groups. The suggestion that the Andean South American genus Apurimacia might be sister to the largely Old World Tephrosia rather than to Lonchocarpus (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001) is possibly indicative of other Old World–New World sister groups yet to be found. Further molecular evidence will probably result in an overall reduction in the number of genera recognised, particularly in the Tephrosia and Lonchocarpus groups where various small or monotypic ‘one-organ’ genera may be better placed within larger genera. Ptycholobium, Requienia and Paratephrosia, for example, are difficult to distinguish from Tephrosia, but for the emphasis traditionally placed on their atypical pods.

    Derris robusta (Roxb. ex DC.) Benth. (= Brachypterum robustum (Roxb. ex DC.) Dalzell & A.Gibson) is in a basally branching position well removed from the Derris clade in the analysis of Hu et al. (2002), but further sampling is needed to reassess this and whether Brachypterum should be upheld as a distinct genus; estimates of species number range from about 40 (Geesink, 1984) to nearly 70 (Lock & Heald, 1994); the current estimate is based on some species being transferred to Paraderris, Aganope and Deguelia
    Habit
    Mainly lianas, few trees and shrubs
    Ecology
    Tropical rain forest to seasonally dry forest, bushland or thicket, often swampy or riverine
    Distribution
    mainly Asia (S China, Indian subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia and Papuasia); 1 mangrove sp. extending from E Africa to Australia and W Pacific; 2 further spp. in Australia
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Relationships among genera of Millettieae have been notoriously difficult to unravel based on traditional morphological evidence and this is exemplified by the alphabetical arrangement of genera in the tribal treatments of Geesink (1981; 1984) and Polhill (1994). Geesink (1981) recognised 44 genera and c. 870 species in tribe Millettieae (as ‘Tephrosieae’) while 43 genera were accounted for in Geesink (1984) and Polhill (1994). The genera recognised, however, varied considerably with only 33 genera in common to both treatments of Geesink, while the list of Polhill (1994) combined elements of Geesink (1981, 1984) with new data accumulated since then. Tephrosia has traditionally comprised some 400 species but this is re-estimated at c. 350 species here.

    The traditional circumscription of the predominantly pantropical and subtropical tribe Millettieae is followed here (Fig. 45), with 45 genera and (904)–909–(914) species being recognised, (i.e. excluding the two genera and 11 species transferred to Brongniartieae, see Table 8), although the concept of what comprises Millettieae sens. strict. is changing rapidly based on evidence from molecular phylogenies. Sequence data for millettioid genera comes from the plastid rbcL gene (Doyle et al., 1997; 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Hu & Chang, 2003), phytochrome nucleotide genes (Lavin et al., 1998), the plastid trnK-matK region (Hu et al., 2000) and the nuclear ITS region (Hu, 2000; Hu et al., 2002). Molecular data, together with reinterpreted evidence based on chemistry (Evans et al., 1985) and wood anatomy (Gasson et al., 2004), have been the basis for recognising a number of informal suprageneric groupings and for transferring Cyclolobium and Poecilanthe to tribe Brongniartieae (Table 8; Fig. 45).

     The most far-reaching result of the above molecular analyses was that a substantial part of the traditionally circumscribed tribe Phaseoleae is more closely allied to the core-Millettieae than to the Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade (see page 393). Circumscription of a revised tribe Millettieae is not possible at present until genera are more comprehensively sampled; however, a Millettioid sens. strict. group might be expected to include some genera in the basal millettioid and phaseoloid group, Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae, Ophrestiinae and in small part the Erythrininae, tribe Abreae and the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45). The basal millettioid and phaseoloid group comprises 17 genera (94 species) that may belong either in the Millettioids sens. strict. or Phaseoleae sens. lat., or to a clade sister to both these groups (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001). The core-Millettieae clade comprises c. 22 genera and c. 777 spp., with some additional generic segregates being necessary within the ‘canavanine group’ (Evans et al., 1985), to accommodate species of Millettia sens. lat. and Fordia sens. lat., which on the basis of molecular and chemical evidence are excluded from Millettia and Fordia sens. strict.

    Relationships between the major groups of genera centred on Lonchocarpus, Derris, Millettia and Tephrosia remain obscure, and still reflect a geographical bias in segregating them, i.e. distributions are limited largely to the New World in the Lonchocarpus group, and the Old World in the other groups. The suggestion that the Andean South American genus Apurimacia might be sister to the largely Old World Tephrosia rather than to Lonchocarpus (e.g., Kajita et al., 2001) is possibly indicative of other Old World–New World sister groups yet to be found. Further molecular evidence will probably result in an overall reduction in the number of genera recognised, particularly in the Tephrosia and Lonchocarpus groups where various small or monotypic ‘one-organ’ genera may be better placed within larger genera. Ptycholobium, Requienia and Paratephrosia, for example, are difficult to distinguish from Tephrosia, but for the emphasis traditionally placed on their atypical pods.

    Distinguished from Derris by the hairy anthers and by its chemical profile (Evans et al., 1985)
    Habit
    Lianas
    Ecology
    Tropical rain forest to seasonally dry forest; often marginal or riverine
    Distribution
    Asia (S China, Indian subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia and Papuasia)
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as commercial insecticides, fish poisons, medicine, green manure, shade plants and for timber

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Cook Is., Ghana, Hawaii, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Niue, Ogasawara-shoto, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Zaïre

    Derris Lour. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Cochinch.: 432 (1790)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Cochinch. 2: 432 (1790), nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Cochinch.: 432 (1790), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0