1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Desmanthus Willd.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is America.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Shrubs and herbs
    Ecology
    Tropical to subtropical seasonally dry forest, woodland, grassland, thorn scrub and thicket, along watercourses, in wetlands, rocky or gravelly areas and old pastures
    Distribution
    USA to Mexico and C America (14 spp. in Mexico [7 endemic]; 3 spp. endemic to USA); S America (2 spp. endemic to SE Brazil, Paraguay, N Argentina; 2 spp. [and one infraspecific variant] disjunct between SE USA-E Mexico and the SE Brazil, Paraguay, N Argentina region); 3 spp. more widespread in the New World including the Caribbean, but absent from the Amazon Basin
    Note
    Strongly supported in a clade with Schleinitzia and Kanaloa by Luckow et al. (2003) and Hughes et al. (2003)

    The tribe Mimoseae (sensu Bentham, 1875) is retained here simply as a matter of convenience. All recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that Ingeae and Acacieae are derived from within Mimoseae (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Käss & Wink, 1996; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), making it a paraphyletic group at best. The most recent studies indicate that it may not even be monophyletic with respect to the Caesalpinioideae (Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003).

    Although the outline of a new tribal classification of the mimosoids is emerging, we await better-supported phylogenies (based on more extensive data) before formalising new stable and useful groups. Some parts of the classification proposed here are better supported than others. Notably, the basal branches in Fig. 24 are poorly supported in most analyses and the relationships among the groups are likely to change as we acquire more data. As presently indicated (Luckow et al., 2003), the type genus Mimosa falls within the derived Piptadenia group which is in turn sister, and basally branching, to elements of Acacia and Ingeae (Fig. 24). A more narrowly circumscribed Mimoseae sens. strict. will thus leave the bulk of Mimoseae sens. lat. (i.e., as treated here) in need of new tribal allocation. The most conspicuous difference between the classification presented here and that of Lewis & Elias (1981) is the inclusion of tribe Parkieae within Mimoseae. The former was circumscribed based on imbricate aestivation of the calyx, and was considered the basal tribe within the Mimosoideae (Elias, 1981a). Recent phylogenetic analyses (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), indicate that the two genera in the Parkieae, Parkia and Pentaclethra, are not sister taxa (Fig. 24). Pentaclethra is nested within Mimoseae in Luckow et al. (2000), but is either sister to caesalpinioid taxa in Bruneau et al. (2001) and Herendeen et al. (2003a), or part of a basal polytomy with Mimoseae and caesalpinioid taxa (Luckow et al., 2003). Both Parkia and Pentaclethra are included in the tribe Mimoseae pending additional data and tribal recircumscription.

    Recent work (Luckow et al., submitted a) also indicates that the monospecific tribe Mimozygantheae should be subsumed in the Mimoseae near Piptadeniopsis and Prosopidastrum, currently in the Prosopis group. Otherwise, the informal groups within the Mimoseae recognised by Lewis & Elias (1981) are relatively well-supported by current phylogenies and only a few departures have been made from their system. Where relationships are either poorly supported or unresolved, the classification of Lewis & Elias (1981) is retained. The Xylia group is dismantled and the Adenanthera group recircumscribed to include Calpocalyx and Xylia . Desmanthus has been removed from the Dichrostachys group, as has Neptunia, in agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic studies (Harris et al., 1994; Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1995, 1997). A new group is erected to accommodate Piptadeniastrum which is well separated from Newtonia in the most recent phylogeny (Luckow et al., 2000; 2003), and another to accommodate Cylicodiscus, which is more closely related to the clade containing the Prosopis, Leucaena, Dichrostachys, and Piptadenia groups than it is to the Newtonia group. Neptunia is well supported as sister to Prosopidastrum in recent analyses (Luckow et al., 2003) and is included in the Prosopis group here. Relationships of genera in the Prosopis group are not resolved, but the group is retained here as there is no evidence that it is not monophyletic. Genera newly described since 1981 include Alantsilodendron, Calliandropsis, Kanaloa, and Lemurodendron. Alantsilodendron and Calliandropsis are placed in the Dichrostachys group, and Kanaloa in the Leucaena group based on phylogenetic analyses (Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1997; Luckow et al., 2000). Lemurodendron is tentatively included in the Newtonia group as suggested by Villiers & Guinet (1989). As treated here the Mimoseae comprises 40 genera and from (859)– 869–(879) species.

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Desmanthus pernambucanus (L.) Thell. (long misinterpreted as D. virgatus (L.) Willd. [which is nevertheless still a good species]) is a widespread pantropical weed; genus also used as ornamentals, cattle fodder and in erosion control; D. illinoensis (Michx.) MacMill. (Illinois or prairie bundleflower, prairie mimosa, spider bean) is used for human food (leaves, cooked seeds), medicine and is a potential pulse crop

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nicaragua, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, South Dakota, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, West Virginia, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Canary Is., Cape Verde, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Madagascar, Malaya, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., New Caledonia, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Wake I., West Himalaya, Zimbabwe

    Desmanthus Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 28, 1995 Oliveira, M. [125], Pernambuco K000849295
    Rico, L. [1971], Dominican Republic K000478743
    Rico, L. [1168], Mexico K000562978
    Gaumer, G.F. [s.n.], Mexico K000563050
    Salas M., S.H. [3336], Mexico K000562977

    First published in Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 1044 (1806)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0